The Space Missions of 2018

2018 has definitely been a big year for space, and space exploration. I have managed to capture a few of the great moments like the launch of InSight, JAXA landing rovers on an asteroid, and the launch of the Parker Probe. There have been a few others that are notable mentions, and that is the point of this post, to talk about some great launched missions, and others that have finished their jobs, purposely or forced.

Bepicolombo

The British built Bepicolombo launched in October 20th, to begin its 7 year journey to visit Mercury. Currently one of the least explored planets in the solar system, Bepicolombo intends to change that. When it arrives in late 2025 it will endure temperatures of over 350 °C, and be there for at least a year, possibly for twice that. It is made up of two spacecraft, the Mercury Planet Orbiter (MPO) lead by ESA, and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) lead by JAXA. The aim is to measure the composition, atmosphere and magnetosphere of Mercury to understand its history. This could lead to understanding more about how other planets such as Earth formed. BepiColombo is named after Professor Giuseppe (Bepi) Colombo (1920-1984) from the University of Padua, Italy. He made big leaps in understanding Mercury, and suggested to NASA how to use a gravity-assist swing-by of Venus to place Mariner 10 into a solar orbit of Mercury.

Bepicolombo artists impression
Artist’s impression of the BepiColombo spacecraft in cruise configuration. The Mercury Transfer Module is at the bottom. The Mercury Planetary Orbiter is in the middle. The Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter sits inside the sunshield, visible at the top. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab

InSight

Back in May I posted about how an Atlas V had just lifted the Mars Insight lander. In late November the $814 million lander it reached its target of the Elysium Planitia region of Mars, landing safely. The aim is for it investigate how the processes that shaped all the inner rocky planets more than 4 billion years ago worked. It uses two seismometers (one of which built by RAL space in the UK) and a number of other instruments to study the crust, mantle and core of the red planet. It works by measuring how much the area shakes when asteroids hit the planet. Also measuring the heat flow and precision tracking it is getting a glimpse of Mars we have yet to see. The launch also allowed for two cubesats, MarCO-A and MarCO-B to be the first to be launched into deep space. The first test of miniaturised cubesat technology being used on another planet. This mission will be one to watch for the near future.

There’s a quiet beauty here. Looking forward to exploring my new home. #MarsLanding pic.twitter.com/mfClzsfJJr— NASA InSight (@NASAInSight) November 27, 2018

Kepler

A bit sadder news is the end of the Kepler space telescope after 9 years service. It has collected a huge amount of data in its lifetime, finding the night sky is filled with billions of hidden planets, more planets than stars. This may seem obvious but is not easy to prove. During its time the planet hunter has found evidence of more than 2,600 planets outside our solar system, and left hints at many more, paving the way for future planet hunters and getting good engineering data on what works and what doesn’t. Telescopes such as ARIEL which will launch in the net decade will have better design due to Kepler. The space telescope had been running low on fuel for months, and struggled to point the correct way. After the 4 year mission it continued to work a different mission named K2. In October it was officially declared dead, left in orbit as it may have been dangerous for it to enter the atmosphere.

The Kepler Space Telescope mission, by the numbers
The Kepler Space Telescope mission, by the numbers. Credit: NASA/Ames/Wendy Stenzel

Parker Solar Probe

Back in august I wrote about the classic Delta IV heavy launching with the Parker Solar Probe aboard. The aim is to get closer to the sun than previously possible. Over the next seven years the probe will make 24 close approaches to the sun, with the aim of eventually getting within 3.8 million miles of the surface. The previous record (that Parker has now broken) was 26.6 million miles, set in 1976. It will revolutionise our understanding of the sun, and how the changing conditions can affect the solar system. It will use Venus’ gravity to slowly get closer to the sun. As a reference, we are 93 million miles away from the sun. It will eventually fly through the sun’s outer atmosphere, known as the Corona for the first time, getting brand new, in situ measurements. The spacecraft has a 4.5 inch thick carbon composite shield to protect it from the heat and radiation. The temperatures will reach over 1300 C.

Parker Solar Probe in the Fairing
Parker Solar Probe in the Fairing, ready to be put on the rocket in the clean room. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins APL/Ed Whitman

TESS

Back in April I posted about the launch of the TESS exoplanet hunter by a Falcon 9. I have already talked about exoplanets and planet hunters, and this is a big part of that plan. TESS stands for Transiting Exoplanet Surveying Satellite, and it does what it says on the tin, it is surveying the sky for potential exoplanets. Basically it is looking for exoplanets that could harbour life. The expectation is that it will catalog thousands of planet candidates and vastly increase the known number of exoplanets. Approximately 300 are expected to be Earth-sized and super-Earth-sized exoplanets that can then use the future more complex telescopes such as JWST to look at in more detail. The satellite will look at the sky for two years by breaking it up into 26 sections, and looking at each one for 27 days at a time. Unlike Kepler and K2 TESS will be looking at brighter stars, meaning ground based observatories can corroborate the observations.

the TESS telescope
The TESS satellite before launch, the four cameras can be seen on the top of the spacecraft; Credit: NASA.

Dawn

In September I posted about the Dawn spacecraft and the rise of Ion Engines. With the loss of the Dawn mission around the same time as Kepler, they ran out of fuel within two days of each other. The 11 year Dawn mission racked up a few very important records. It is the first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies, and the first to orbit any object in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It is also a record breaker for electric speed. Travelling over 25,700 mph. Visiting Ceres and Vesta, it found out some very important scientific data that tells us a huge amount about the formation of our solar system. With a large proportion of the meteorites hitting Earth coming from these two bodies, Dawn showed the difference between the potential dwarf planets. One of the early uses of ion engines, it also showed the potential of the efficient form of travel, and now many more satellites are using them.

Dawn prior to encapsulation at its launch pad on July 1, 2007. Credit: NASA/Amanda Diller

Mars Rovers

This is a mixed bag, we have already had great news about the InSight lander, with it recording sounds of Martian winds, the rovers also have big news this year. In June the Curiosity rover found Organic matter in the Martian soil. The samples, taken from 3 billion year old mudstone contained complex hydrocarbons. This along with its detection of methane changes in the atmosphere are one step along the way to finding evidence of life on other planets. There have also been many more photos from the red planet, with Curiosity taking a few more selfies. See here how the car sized rover achieves the great pictures. On the other side of it there was a huge Martian storm that may have killed the Opportunity rover by covering the solar panels in dust. Although there are still hopes the rover can start communications again, we will have to see.

Curiosity in a dust storm
An image shared by Seán Doran on Sunday of the Mars Curiosity in the middle of a dust storm reported to cover an area the size of the US and Russia Combined. CredIt: NASA/JPL/Seán Doran.

Asteroid Rovers

In late september, another great story came out, that JAXA (the Japanese space agency) successfully landed a number of rovers on an asteroid. Still to launch all of the four onto the surface, there are already great images from the surface of an asteroid. The little rovers use a hopping mechanism to get around, as the gravity on the asteroid is so small a wheeled rover just wouldn’t work. The spacecraft will also be attempting to collect samples to return to Earth in the coming years. The Hayabusa 2 probe is a follow up to the Hayabusa probe which was not a sample return. The second launched on December 3rd 2014 and rendezvoused with the near-earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu on the 27th of June 2018. Currently in the process of surveying the asteroid for a year and a half, it will depart in December 2019, returning to Earth in December 2020.

 MINERVA-II image
First pictures from a MINERVA-II-1 rover that landed on the asteroid. Credit: JAXA.

Thank you for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, or military history. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on. Most of all, thank you for taking the time to read my posts this year! So all have a Happy New Year, and here’s to a great 2019 in space!

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Roundup: Parker Solar Probe Launch

Rocket flames
An awesome image of the Delta IV heavy launching from pad 37B. Credit: Aerojet Rocketdyne.

At 07:31 UTC on August the 12th 2018 the 10th ever Delta IV heavy vehicle launched the long awaited Parker Solar Probe from Cape Canaveral Space Launch Complex 37B. The Delta 4 Heavy launched PSP towards a heliocentric orbit. The mission aims to “touch the sun”, and to get as close to the sun as man has ever been. Getting as close as 3.9 million miles from the sun, that’s roughly 4% of the distance between the Earth and the Sun (roughly 93 million miles).

time lapse
A great timelapse of the Delta 4 heavy launching towards the sun. Credit: Marcus Cote.

The Parker Solar Probe was named after Dr Eugene Parker who discovered the solar winds in 1958. He was present at the launch at the Kennedy Space Centre, seeing the 685kg spacecraft lifted. The 7 year mission will make 24 elliptical orbits of the sun, and uses 7 flybys of Venus to drop the low point of the orbit. It will make the closest point of the orbit closer than any other man made object in heliocentric orbit. It will enter the sun’s “atmosphere”, a section known as the corona, the outermost part of the atmosphere. Protected by a 4.5 inch sunshield, it can withstand temperatures of 2500F (1377C). The aim is to understand how the sun can creates and evolves solar flares and solar winds. It is to understand how the highest energy particles that pass the Earth are formed. It is hoped that it will revolutionise our understanding of the sun, to help us develop and create technology here on Earth.

The rocket has three RS-68A boosters, with the outbound boosters cutting off at T+3 min 57 sec, the core then cut off a minute and a half later at T+5 min 36 sec. The Delta’s cryogenic first stage engine was RL10B-2, which began burning at T+5 min 55 sec, and stopped its first burn at T+10 min 37 sec. This burn entered the 3,044 kg load into a 168 km x 183 km x 28.38 deg parking orbit. The second burn started at T+22 min 25 sec, and ended at T+36 min 39 sec, accelerating it to C3 of 59 km2/sec2, roughly 5,300 m/s out of LEO. At this point the Probe was in solar orbit, the Star 4BV separated at T+37 min 9 sec, with it firing at T+37 min 29 sec. The burn ended a minute and a half later at T+38 min 58 sec, accelerating it to 8,750 m/s beyond LEO. The Parker Solar Probe separated four and a half minutes later. The orbits after this point become much more complicated to get to the prefered orbit touching the sun.

Engineers at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, work on NASA’s Parker Solar Probe spacecraft. Parker Solar Probe will be the first-ever mission to fly directly through the Sun’s atmosphere. Photo & Caption Credit: NASA / JHU-APL

The Delta 380 was the first Cape Canaveral Delta to use the upgraded “common avionics” system for its flight controller. The rocket was shipped to the Cape over a year ago, with it being assembled in the SLC 37 HIF. The rocket was then rolled out to the pad in April 2018, and there was a wet dress rehearsal on June 2 and 6th. The initial date for launch was the day before, august 11th but it was scrubbed at T-1 min 55 sec. Some of the best images of these launches are now taken by amateurs. I usually post a few of the images, but this launch was different as most of those who placed their cameras just a few hundred feet from the rocket got very damaged equipment.

Thank you for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, or military history. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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