Red Star: The Soviets can Capture Enemy Planes Too

The USSR F-5E

Read any book about the United States Air Force during the cold war and you will probably find a section about the secret fleet of soviet fighter jets that they kept, tested and stole technology from. The less known part is that the Soviets also captured US planes during conflicts, although it seems like less overall. This is the story of the F5 that ended up deep in Russia.

The USSR F-5E

It wasn’t actually the Russians that captured the plane in the first place, it was the Vietnamese. At the end of the Vietnam war, there were many captured parts of american military equipment in different forms. Vietnam, a famously communist country gave several samples of captured US aviation equipment to the USSR, among it was a F-5E light fighter bomber. Overall 27 were captured during the war, along with 87 F-5A’s. Overall 877 aircraft were captured. The Vietnamese actually plan to bring some back into service. The particular F-5E had serial number 73-00807, and was an extremely valuable intelligence coup that had the ability to tell the communists about American design, and how this form of mass produced plane could function. Therefore how they could design planes to counter it.

The USSR F-5E

The plane was sent to the VVS airbase in Chkalovsky before being transferred to the Akhtubinsk air base not long after. Engineers and research staff from the Aeronautical research institute were formed as a test team to investigate the American fighter jet and test its abilities. Overall they were impressed with the design of the jet, and admired the ease of maintenance on the F-5E while they operated it. They were also impressed with the wing design, as t gave the jet an impressive flying ability at high angles of attack and minimum speeds. The F-5E was known officially as the Tiger II. From the end of July 1976 to May 1977, a full scale test flight was conducted at the Air Force Research Institute. A.S.Byezhyevets and V.N. Kondaurov, both decorated Heroes of the Soviet Union, were the pilots in charge of the test flight.

test report of the USSR F-5E

They were surprised with the results, the F-5E was much more maneuverable than most Soviet aircraft, especially then the MiG-21, which was the highly capable soviet dog fighter of the time. It even showed some advantages over the MiG-23, the most advanced Russian fighter of the time. That being said, it was noted that the F-5E did have a disadvantage when it came to vertical maneuverability and energy when compared to the MiG-23. It also had a lacking arsenal, with nothing beyond visual range medium-range missiles, which the MiG-23 could hold. The Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) in Moscow were in charge of static tests of the aircraft, with the results exhaustively recorded. It is interesting when you look at planes such as the T-8 and the T-10, as you can see some design features obviously lifted from the F-5E. Eventually it was moved in the 1990’s, or at least the nose was, to a display area known as Hangar 1, which is now virtually impossible for any outsiders to visit.

The USSR F-5E on display with descriptions around it

Thank you for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, physics or military history. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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Final Rokot Launches Sentinel 3B

What Sentinel 3B looks like
Artist’s view of what Sentinel 3B looks like when up in space, sadly there are not many images of it for real! Credit: ESA/ATG Medialab

On April 25th, 2018, at 17:57 UTC a Russian Rokot/Briz KM rocket launched from Site 133, pad 3 from Plesetsk Cosmodrome. Aboard was Sentinel 3B, an Earth observing satellite, part of Europe’s Copernicus environmental monitoring network. This marks the final commercial Rokot Launch, and the final Eurokot mission. There are some more Rockot launches planned for the Russian government though, after which it is reportedly that the repurposed missile launch system will be retired.

Sentinel-3B UC exit from MIK go to Launch pad
The Sentinel 3B being transported to the launchpad by the russian train system.

Sentinel 3B is a Thales Alenia Space Prima Bus satellite, designed to measure ocean temperatures, colour, surface height and the thickness of sea ice. While it is over land it can measure the height of rivers and lakes, monitor wildfires, provide maps of land use and monitor vegetation. The satellite has been designed for many uses. Created for the European Space Agency, the satellite will join Sentinel 3A in orbit to symmetrically monitor the Earth. The data will be primarily fed into the Copernicus Environmental Monitoring Service, where the applications can be developed from to use the data.

Sentinel 3B in integration
An image of the Sentinel 3B satellite just before it was sent off to Russia to be put on the Rokot. Credit ESA

The satellite carries many payloads to track the huge amount of data it is recording, these include:

  • OLCI (Ocean and Land Colour Instrument)
  • SLSTR (Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer)
  • SRAL (Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter)
  • MWR (Microwave Radiometer)
  • DORIS
  • LRR (Laser Retroreflector)
  • GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)

Thales Alenia Space was the prime contractor, responsible for constructing the spacecraft and the SRAL instrument, as well as contributing to the supply of the SLSTR instrument. Many European companies were involved in supplying the SLSTR instrument, including SELEX Galileo, RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), Jena-Optronik, Thales Alenia Space, ABSL and ESA-ESTEC. EADS CASA Espacio was contracted to provide the MWR instrument. CNES was contracted to provide the DORIS instrument.

Mediterranean Sea
An image of the Mediterranean Sea taken by Sentinel 3A, the partner of Sentinel 3B, they will don the same job on opposite sides of the Earth. Credit: ESA

The Abandoned Buran Launch Site

So on my recent search for history on the Buran Shuttle, I came across this blog post. Although I had to use the Wayback machine to see it, it shows some great shots of the place where the Buran Shuttle used to launch.

Signpost

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The images show the way that the test site has been left to rust away. Although still obviously a launch site, the stone is breaking, and the machines obviously havn’t been used in a long time.

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As you can see, there is still rubbish piled up, remains of old vehicles, and random scrap metal everywhere. Almost like everyone just up and left. If you have read any of my other posts on the Buran, you will know that is basically what happened. Around 1993, the USSR crumbled and the Buran shuttle programme was left behind. This is why this launch site is still like this, and why urban explorers can go out and take pictures.

On top of this, they found a few other things, including an actual Buran shuttle. Although not a working version, more of a prototype, this shuttle shows how it probably would have looked back in the day. I believe this is the version found at the Gagarin museum in the Baikonur Cosmodrome, close to the launch site found in these pictures. This one is on display to the public, and was refurbished in 2007.

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The last thing that they found was a large machine. More specifically, the machine used to transport the Shuttle to the launch site. A colossal platform, that could move the shuttle and the solid rocket boosters needed for the flight. Unfortunately it was only ever used once in 1988, the only BUran flight ever. So it hasn’t seen much action. It was different to the USA’s Crawler-transporter because it was pulled by 5 diesel trains.

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