So today I was out with a group of friends in a local estate near Plympton. The owner was there and while we were talking, he told us to just stop and listen for a second. So listen we did. Behind the bushes and the trees, we heard grunting. This grunting was the sound of Fallow deer. Apparently there are around 100 Fallow deer in the area, and for this 2 week period, its mating season. The sound we heard was a rare one, it was the sound of the buck’s grunting and thrashing around in the ferns. Why do they do this? Apparently, they try and make as much noise as possible, so they sound big and scary, so mates will be attracted to them. The louder they are, the more likely that they will find a mate. I found this quite interesting, I thought you guys might too. I wouldn’t try and go up against a Fallow deer at this time of year, you are likely to lose. Lots and lots of testosterone flowing.
As an interesting side note about Fallow deer, they are the only British deer to have palmate antlers, so they have that bit in between the horns, like frogs feet.
So as we discussed in a previous post, Plymouth wasn’t always the power that it is today. In fact, in 1066, during the norman conquest, it was still called Sutton Pool, and had a population of 18 people. So realistically, there was no real need for any sort of fortification. The only place with a need for protection was just up the river at Plympton. Here, there was a Motte and Bailey Castle. Basically a small keep on top of a big hill, surprisingly effective at the time.
Over time though, the river changed, and the need of Sutton as a main port suddenly became of strategic importance. Around the start of the hundred years war in 1337 it was attracting unwanted attention from continental forces. It’s thought that earthwork defences were built around this time on the hoe and waterfront. There was also likely to have been similar works on the other side of the river at mount batten.
The most important part of this defence was Plymouth castle. In 1377 a murage grant was received, this is basically a tax specifically for castles, walls and other defences. The exact date that it was built is unknown, but it was first recorded in the early 1400’s. The castle was on the western side of Sutton Pool. It had 4 sides, with round towers on each corner, with curtain walls, 4 meters high. The main need for the castle was to control a chain that was raised to stop access to the harbour. If a ship got caught in this, it would be subjected to the castle’s cannons. The castle’s entrance was shielded by a barbican, which now lends its name to a part of the city.
There is no official date that the castle is said to have been built, but based around events we can give a good range. In 1340 during the Hundred Years’ War, the town was attacked by a flotilla of french raiders. Although they burned a manor house, and took some prisoners, they failed to get into the town. It was said to be due to an effective defence, this could be the castle, or it could just have been earthworks. There was another attack by the french in 1377. This lead to the murage grant to fund fortification, this may well be the money used to build the castle, but it could also have been used to fund walls or earthworks.
In 1400, it was likely that the castle was in existence, as it allegedly drove off a fleet of french ships. It was said that an english force of ships were being pursued by James of Bourbon, Count le Marche. The english forces sought refuge in Sutton harbour and scared them away. In august 1403 the castle was definitely present, and provided refuge when a Breton army landed at Cattewater and attacked and burned the town. This attack is still remembered today, by a part of the town known as Bretonside. This is the point where the invaders were stopped by the citizens marching out from the castle to attack them.
After this the castle saw very little real action. Other parts of the city were being fortified, and the castle became less important in the grand scheme. In 1549, it did play a part in the Prayer Book Rebellion; where cornishmen rebelled against the law created to have all church services in the land to be conducted in the english language. The Cornish at the time rarely spoke english, and so a rebellion started. At a point during this time, the town was besieged by rebels. The town quickly surrendered, but the castle didn’t, it held members of the crown and protestants, likely targets by the rebels. Eventually the rebellion was defeated, and the siege was lifted.
In 1588, the castle played a small part in the attack on the Spanish Armada. The English Navy took shelter from the wind and waited for the tide in Sutton harbour. The Castle gave the Navy a good defence. Unfortunately after this, in the Elizabethan era defences had moved on from simple castles. Sir Francis Drake (kinda famous in Plymouth) built an artillery fort on the Hoe. The structure, eventually known as Drake’s Fort was partially built using stone from Plymouth Castle. After this the closest it got to any action was during the civil war, when it held a parliamentary Garrison. Although, because Royalists controlled Mount Batten, Millbay on the west side of the harbour was used over Sutton Harbour so the castle wasn’t used as a military structure.
That is basically the History of Plymouth Castle. The castle itself eventually fell into disrepair, actually described as ruinous. It was used as a prison, and also a workhouse for a time. Unfortunately, in the 19th century, during the population boom, the remains were slowly robbed to be used in houses and other building projects. There is only a small part of the gatehouse still existing, and it has been turned into a part of a garden.
Fun fact: the four towers of Plymouth Castle are said to be remembered in the towns coat of arms, with 4 towers separated by st. Andrews cross (the patron St of Plymouth). The towers are said to be protecting him.
So I have been living in Plymouth as a student for the past few years, studying at Plymouth University. It’s a great place, but I realised I don’t really know anything about it, or it’s history. So I have decided to start finding it out. I intend to post all the interesting stuff I find out here on my blog.
Where better to start that.. well the start! Or at least as far back as is recorded. The early history of the Plymouth area.
There have been many excavations and archaeological digs conducted over the years, with one of the most notable by Barry Cuncliff in 1988. During excavations in local caves in the Mount Batten area, Homo Sapiens were found, along with artefacts dating from the bronze age through to iron age. According to Cuncliff, this shows that it was one of the main trading ports of the country at that time. He goes on to state that Mount Batten was the site of the earliest trade with Europe yet discovered in bronze age Britain.
Ptolemy’s Geographia talks about an unidentified settlement named “TAMARI OSTIA” which translates to mouth/estuaries of the river Tamar. This could be the the location of the modern city of Plymouth, it could also be Mount Batten, or even potentially the settlement of Plympton just up the river.
The modern name of Plymouth is thought to have come from the fact it is at the mouth of the river Plym. Just up the river is the old town of Plympton, was recorded as Plymentun circa 900. There are many theories about where this name comes from, some say its from the old english word for “plum tree” (ploumenn). Other theories include the Latin for tin (Plumbum), or the Cornish word for lead (Plomm). All we know is that the first recorded name for the river was the Plyme in 1238. About this time are the first recorded name of Plymouth as a settlement (Plymmue in 1230, and Plimmuth in 1234). Previous to this though, and area known as PlymMouth was noted in a Pipe roll in 1211.
Plympton was at one point an early trading port, up until around the early 11th century, when the river became very silted, and forced merchants and mariners to trade instead in modern day Plymouth, around the area of the Barbican, much closer to the rivers mouth. At this time there was only a village there called Sutton, an old English word meaning “south town”. Although the town has been mentioned in many documents, Plymouth officially replaced the name Sutton in a Charter of King Henry VI in 1440.
I hope you find my first post about Plymouth informative, and interesting. I plan on doing quite a few of these posts, comments would be appreciated, and ideas that people want would also be great. Thanks for reading.