The Crew Dragon Flies

Crew Demo landing

This weekend a very important event happened, something many rocket enthusiasts have been waiting for. The first capsule designed to hold commercial crew was launched by SpaceX. A successful launch, the Falcon 9 carrying the first crew Dragon lifted off from pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Centre, Cape Canaveral, FL on the 2nd of March 2019 at 07:49 UTC. This was the first orbital test of the Dragon capsule, and although it was unmanned, it did hold a dummy test astronaut nicknamed Ripley, after the heroine from Alien.

loading the rocket
The modified Falcon 9 being rolled out towards the launch pad on the specially designed trailer. Credit: SpaceX
Crew Dragon
A close up side on view of the Crew Dragon while it it waiting to be loaded. Credit: SpaceX

The capsule was launched on top of the 70m tall Falcon 9 that had minor changes to work with NASA’s strict requirements for commercial crew. Trailing off in a north easterly direction, the Dragon capsule sailed on a 27 hour autonomous route towards the International Space Station. The capsule itself is 16ft tall, and 13ft in diameter, and is designed to be able to hold 7 people in relative comfort (compared to the previous equivalents). This capsule sits on top of a trunk that could contain some cargo on future trips. The capsule is 12ft tall, 12ft in diameter, and coated in solar arrays. The cargo section is not designed to survive a journey back to Earth, with the heat shield and thermal protection system being on the capsule itself.

John Kraus Photos
A great long exposure shot of the Crew Demo launching, taken from Merritt Island. FL. Credit: John Kraus Photography. Click on the photo and buy one of his rocket prints!

The first stage of the Falcon 9 powered through the thick lower atmosphere for about 2 and a half minutes before shutting down and separating. The booster B1051.1 was brand new, performing landing burns on its way back through the atmosphere to come back and land successfully on the autonomous drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You”. The landing was particularly rough with choppy seas out in the Atlantic that day. The booster did not manage to hit right on the X on the pad, but was still stood up when it returned to port Canaveral. This was a big moment as it is now the 35th successful booster recovery. Just a minute after the first stage landed the second stage engine cut-off. A few moments later the Crew Dragon was released from the second stage to begin the 27 hour journey to the ISS.

landscape
A landscape view of the launchpad 39A at Cape Canaveral, with the first commercial crew mission on board the Falcon 9. Credit: Marcus Cote Photography. Click the image and go buy one of his prints!

The 400lb capsule glided to an automated docking early on Sunday morning, completing one of the major milestones of the mission. Aided by a laser rangefinder and a thermal camera the Dragon capsule approached the space station and linked with the docking port on the forward end of the complex at 10:51 UTC. This is now the first privately owned human rated spaceship to reach the ISS. The link up happened at over 400km over the northern end of New Zealand during what is known as orbital night time. The capsule first held back at around 60 m from the station, testing radio links. When given the go ahead it then moved towards the ISS at 10cm per second or 0.2mph. The capsule actually arrived 9 minutes ahead of schedule when the latches engaged to create a connection with the International docking adapter.

Crew Dragon
The Crew Dragon moving slowly towards the ISS. Credit: NASA

The station docking adaptor was installed over the old space shuttle docking port, at the forward end of the Harmony module. The arrival marks the first time a visiting spaceship has docked there since the last flight of the shuttle Atlantis in 2011. Once docked 12 hooks closed to forma firm mechanical connection, and then two umbilical lines were attached by robotic arms to allow the stations electrical system to power the Dragon module during the stay. After a number of checks, Saint-Jacques opened the crew Dragons hatch, becoming the first person to board the ship. The crew wore face masks when entering the Dragon, as they would with any other visiting spacecraft, for precaution. Once the capsule was given the all clear the crew removed their masks and unloaded the 100 lb of cargo stowed under the seats. On board the Dragon was a small stuffed toy in the shape of Earth, made by Celestial Buddies. NASA astronaut Anne McClain quickly picked it up and made a video with it. Celestial buddies were unaware that they would have one of their toys would be going on a mission, and they are therefore sold out for now, but they have some great other toys on offer instead.

Crew Dragon
A closer view of the Crew Dragon, just moments bore docking. Credit: NASA
long exposure of the Falcon 9
A 277 second exposure of the Falcon 9 launching from LC-39A, so long that it shows the separation of the first stage. Credit: Mike Seeley.

The Crew Dragon will depart the space station early on Friday at 07:31 UTC, followed by a de-orbit burn at 12:50 UTC. The spacecraft jettisons the unpressurised trunk section, with the solar panels and radiator, what will burn up in the atmosphere. The heat shield on the Crew dragon will then protect it as it comes into the atmosphere from a northwest to southeast direction. Aiming for a splashdown under the four parachutes somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean, east of Cape Canaveral at 13:45 UTC. The next big test for the Crew Dragon will be a launch where the launch escape system is tested. Designed to push the capsule away from the rocket if there is a major failure, that launch will be in late June of 2019 if all goes well. The first crewed mission is planned for July this year.

A great image turned into a poster from the rocket launch, with an emotive quote by Elon Musk. Credit: Erik Kuna.

Thank you for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, or military history. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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The Exoplanet Hunter TESS Launched by Falcon 9

TESS taking off
The Falcon 9 taking off from SLC-40 at Cape Canaveral with TESS on board. Credit: SpaceX Flickr.

On April 18th, 2018 at 22:51 UTC a Falcon 9 took off from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral AFB. Aboard was NASA’s latest research satellite TESS. A mission that cost $337 million, Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)  is the latest in a line of space based observatories that are set to launch this decade. Launched into an arching elliptical orbit that will take the spacecraft over two thirds of the distance to the moon. The first stage of the Falcon 9 landed on the autonomous drone ship Of Course I Still Love You to be refurbished and reused.

falcon 9 engines
The sheer power of the Falcon 9’s nine Merlin 1D engines produce an awesome inferno. You can clearly see the 45 written on the side as the booster designator. Credit @marcuscotephoto on Twitter.

After a 5 day checkout of the spacecraft, basically a hardware check, the ground controllers will switch on the TESS cameras. TESS is designed to scan around 85% of the sky during the two year mission, with astronomers estimating as many as 20,000 new planets could be found. It plans to build on discoveries made by NASA’s Kepler telescope which was launched in 2009 to find earth like planets. TESS carries four 16.8-megapixel cameras, and will look for dips in light coming from 200,000 preselected nearby stars. The four cameras cover a square in the sky that measures 24 x 24 degrees, wide enough to fit the Orion constellation into a single camera. the cameras together study a set area of sky for 27 days before staring at the next section.

TESS orbit
An illustration of the orbits that TESS will go through to get to the final orbit P/2. Credit: NASA.

The orbit TESS is being launched into is known as P/2, and requires time and finesse to reach. TESS will slingshot by the moon at a distance of around 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers), using gravity to reshape its orbit, increasing the satellite’s orbital perigee, or low point, to the final planned altitude of around 67,000 miles. After the lunar flyby, the high point of the satellite’s elongated orbit will stretch well beyond the moon, and another thruster firing will nudge TESS into its final orbit in mid-June. Science data is planned to start in july, with the first year of the two year campaign aimed at the stars in the southern sky. TESS has been built to have enough fuel to last 20 or 30 years, assuming funding by NASA and the components on board continue to function correctly.

the TESS telescope
The TESS satellite before launch, the four cameras can be seen on the top of the spacecraft; Credit: NASA.

Each of TESS’s cameras have four custom built re-sensitive CCD sensors designed and developed by MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory. The sensors are claimed to be the most perfect CCD’s ever flown by a science mission. The lenses used by the cameras are only about 4 inches (10mm) wide, meaning it has a fairly low light collecting power compared to other space telescopes. The James Webb Space Telescope for example launching in 2020 had a 21.3ft (6.5m) primary mirror, although the satellite has cost over $8 billion to make. TESS is a bit like a finder telescope, it will lay a bedrock for future missions such as Webb and ground based observatories to make better readings. It gives a good idea of the best places to look, where the most likely exoplanets are.

launch of TESS
The Falcon 9 launching the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite to an orbit of P/2. Credit: SpaceX Flickr.

TESS works by looking at a star, in this case mainly M-dwarf stars, which are cooler than our sun. They are also known as red dwarfs and make up most of the stars in our galaxy. When a planet goes in front of the star the light received by TESS “dips” and changes slightly in colour. This change in the light it receives can tell scientists alot about the size of a planet, and other things like density and velocity. They expect TESS to find between 500 and 1,000 planets that are between one and three times the size of Earth, and 20,000 planets the size of Neptune or Jupiter. The readings will give a good idea of where to focus on and ‘follow up’ on future missions. Then missions such as JWST can probe and use more complex tools to find information such as atmospheric composition, and whether they could be habitable.

long exposure TESS
A long exposure of the Falcon 9 taking off over the SpaceX hangar at Cape Canaveral. Credit: SpaceX Flickr.

The Falcon 9 used was a v1.2 with designation F9-54. It used a brand new “Block 4” first stage. The booster designated B1045 has a clear 45 written on the side in some of the close up booster images. The fist stage boosted for 2 minutes and 29 seconds, then detaching and slowing itself down. The booster landed downrange on the autonomous drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You”. The first successful drone ship landing since October 2017. A total of 24 Falcon 9 or Falcon Heavy booster stages have now been recovered in 30 attempts. Four of which were on “Just Read The Instructions” off the coast of California, ten at Cape Canaveral Landing Zone 1 and 2, and nine on the autonomous drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You” off the Florida Coast. 18 first stages have been recovered, 11 of which have flown twice, five have been lost during their second flight. B1045 was the last brand new “Block 4” Falcon 9 booster.

TESS taking off
An awesome photo of a Falcon 9 taking off from across the water, a perfect day for pictures! Credit: SpaceX Flickr.

To find similar photos, and to buy reasonably priced prints of some of the above visit www.marcuscotephotography.com