The Crew Dragon Flies

Crew Demo landing

This weekend a very important event happened, something many rocket enthusiasts have been waiting for. The first capsule designed to hold commercial crew was launched by SpaceX. A successful launch, the Falcon 9 carrying the first crew Dragon lifted off from pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Centre, Cape Canaveral, FL on the 2nd of March 2019 at 07:49 UTC. This was the first orbital test of the Dragon capsule, and although it was unmanned, it did hold a dummy test astronaut nicknamed Ripley, after the heroine from Alien.

loading the rocket
The modified Falcon 9 being rolled out towards the launch pad on the specially designed trailer. Credit: SpaceX
Crew Dragon
A close up side on view of the Crew Dragon while it it waiting to be loaded. Credit: SpaceX

The capsule was launched on top of the 70m tall Falcon 9 that had minor changes to work with NASA’s strict requirements for commercial crew. Trailing off in a north easterly direction, the Dragon capsule sailed on a 27 hour autonomous route towards the International Space Station. The capsule itself is 16ft tall, and 13ft in diameter, and is designed to be able to hold 7 people in relative comfort (compared to the previous equivalents). This capsule sits on top of a trunk that could contain some cargo on future trips. The capsule is 12ft tall, 12ft in diameter, and coated in solar arrays. The cargo section is not designed to survive a journey back to Earth, with the heat shield and thermal protection system being on the capsule itself.

John Kraus Photos
A great long exposure shot of the Crew Demo launching, taken from Merritt Island. FL. Credit: John Kraus Photography. Click on the photo and buy one of his rocket prints!

The first stage of the Falcon 9 powered through the thick lower atmosphere for about 2 and a half minutes before shutting down and separating. The booster B1051.1 was brand new, performing landing burns on its way back through the atmosphere to come back and land successfully on the autonomous drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You”. The landing was particularly rough with choppy seas out in the Atlantic that day. The booster did not manage to hit right on the X on the pad, but was still stood up when it returned to port Canaveral. This was a big moment as it is now the 35th successful booster recovery. Just a minute after the first stage landed the second stage engine cut-off. A few moments later the Crew Dragon was released from the second stage to begin the 27 hour journey to the ISS.

A landscape view of the launchpad 39A at Cape Canaveral, with the first commercial crew mission on board the Falcon 9. Credit: Marcus Cote Photography. Click the image and go buy one of his prints!

The 400lb capsule glided to an automated docking early on Sunday morning, completing one of the major milestones of the mission. Aided by a laser rangefinder and a thermal camera the Dragon capsule approached the space station and linked with the docking port on the forward end of the complex at 10:51 UTC. This is now the first privately owned human rated spaceship to reach the ISS. The link up happened at over 400km over the northern end of New Zealand during what is known as orbital night time. The capsule first held back at around 60 m from the station, testing radio links. When given the go ahead it then moved towards the ISS at 10cm per second or 0.2mph. The capsule actually arrived 9 minutes ahead of schedule when the latches engaged to create a connection with the International docking adapter.

Crew Dragon
The Crew Dragon moving slowly towards the ISS. Credit: NASA

The station docking adaptor was installed over the old space shuttle docking port, at the forward end of the Harmony module. The arrival marks the first time a visiting spaceship has docked there since the last flight of the shuttle Atlantis in 2011. Once docked 12 hooks closed to forma firm mechanical connection, and then two umbilical lines were attached by robotic arms to allow the stations electrical system to power the Dragon module during the stay. After a number of checks, Saint-Jacques opened the crew Dragons hatch, becoming the first person to board the ship. The crew wore face masks when entering the Dragon, as they would with any other visiting spacecraft, for precaution. Once the capsule was given the all clear the crew removed their masks and unloaded the 100 lb of cargo stowed under the seats. On board the Dragon was a small stuffed toy in the shape of Earth, made by Celestial Buddies. NASA astronaut Anne McClain quickly picked it up and made a video with it. Celestial buddies were unaware that they would have one of their toys would be going on a mission, and they are therefore sold out for now, but they have some great other toys on offer instead.

Crew Dragon
A closer view of the Crew Dragon, just moments bore docking. Credit: NASA
long exposure of the Falcon 9
A 277 second exposure of the Falcon 9 launching from LC-39A, so long that it shows the separation of the first stage. Credit: Mike Seeley.

The Crew Dragon will depart the space station early on Friday at 07:31 UTC, followed by a de-orbit burn at 12:50 UTC. The spacecraft jettisons the unpressurised trunk section, with the solar panels and radiator, what will burn up in the atmosphere. The heat shield on the Crew dragon will then protect it as it comes into the atmosphere from a northwest to southeast direction. Aiming for a splashdown under the four parachutes somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean, east of Cape Canaveral at 13:45 UTC. The next big test for the Crew Dragon will be a launch where the launch escape system is tested. Designed to push the capsule away from the rocket if there is a major failure, that launch will be in late June of 2019 if all goes well. The first crewed mission is planned for July this year.

A great image turned into a poster from the rocket launch, with an emotive quote by Elon Musk. Credit: Erik Kuna.

Thank you for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, or military history. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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Orbital ATK resupply the ISS

Orbital ATK launch of a Antares 230 Rocket
Orbital ATK launch a cargo resupply mission to the ISS on an Antares Rocket from Wallops. Credit: Orbital ATK Flickr.

On May 21st 2018, Orbital ATK’s Antares launch vehicle orbited the companies Cygnus OA-9 cargo hauling spacecraft. Launched from the little known NASA Wallops Island in Virginia, it took off from pad 0A at 08:44 UTC. OA-9 took 3,250 kg of cargo to the international space station, along with several cubesats that with deployer hardware added roughly 120 kg. This launch was in honour of J.R.Thompson, former Orbital Science CEO, who passed away in 2017.

Antares 230 waitjng
Antares 230 rocket waiting to launch from NASA Wallops Island. Credit: Space Launch Schedule

It was the third flight of the Antares 230 variant, a redesigned vehicle powered by two Energomash RD-181 engines instead of the AJ-26 engines that powered the first five Antares flights. The change was made after one of the AJ-26 turbopumps failed and triggered a destructive explosion above the pad in 2004. Cygnus OA-9 was the sixth enhanced Cygnus with a stretched cargo module, but only the third to fly on Antares, Atlas 5 launched the other three.#

ISS Cargo waiting
The OA-9 Cygnus cargo waiting to me mated with the rest of the rocket at Orbital ATK. Credit: Orbital ATK Flickr.

According to Orbital ATK, Cygnus  OA-9 weighed 6,173 kg at launch, matching OA-8 payload for heaviest launched by an Antares rocket. The RD-181 engines produce a total of 392 tonnes of thrust at liftoff, that powers the 293 tonne rocket into the sky. Built in Ukraine (former Soviet design), the first stage burned for 211 seconds. After first stage shutdown it seperated and coasted “up hill” for 37 seconds before the Orbital ATK Castor 30XL second stage motor ignited to produce 51 tonnes of thrust for 160 seconds. The payload fairing separated 12 seconds before second stage ignition. Cygnus separated into a 198 x 317 km x 51.63 deg orbit about 9 min 6 sec after liftoff.

OA-9 loading cargo
Orbital ATK loading cargo into the Cygnus OA-9 second stage. Credit: Orbital ATK Flickr.

Falcon 9 Re-Supplies the ISS on CRS-14

Launch of CRS-14
Threatnigh thunderstorms, an image taken by a sound triggered camera at Space Launch Complex 40. Image from @marcuscotephoto on twitter.

On April 2nd, 2018 at 20:30 UTC a Falcon 9 took off from Launch complex 40 at Cape Canaveral AFB. Aboard was a refurbished Dragon capsule with CRS-14, a resupply for the ISS. This was the 14th of up to 20 CRS missions contracted with NASA, with new Crew Dragon variants soon to be used. The capsule safely reached the ISS and was docked 20 minutes earlier than planned. The cost of the mission was reported to be around $2 billion, and comes under a contract between NASA and SpaceX.

Reused Dragon Capsule on CRS-14
The CRS-14 just before launch, carrying a reused Dragon Capsule for CRS-14. Image from @marcuscotephoto on Twitter.

The Dragon capsule carried 2,630kg  of cargo to the International Space Station, including supplies and research equipment. it has 1070 kg of science equipment, 344 kg of supplies for the crew, 148 kg of vehicle hardware, 49 kg of advanced computer equipment and 99 kg of spacewalking gear. Aboard there are a number of experiments, such as a new satellite designed to test methods of removing space debris. There are also frozen sperm cell samples, a selection of polymers and other materials, all experiments to test what happens to different items when exposed to space and microgravity.

CRS-14 launch
Launch of F9-53 on April 2nd 2018, carrying CRS-14 using a reused rocket and capsule. Image from SpaceX Flickr.

Designated F9-53, the Falcon 9 used booster B1039.2, which previously boosted the CRS-12 mission in August 2017, where it returned to landing zone 1. As is customary, the first stage was left “sooty” from it’s first flight. It powered for 2 minutes and 41 seconds before falling back to earth. For the sixth time in the last 7 Falcon 9 launches, the first stage was purposefully expended, even though it carried landing legs and steering grid fins. As with other expenatures, the rocket went through the re-entry landing sequence, but just didn’t have anything to land on and ended up in the sea. It was the 11th flight of a previously flown Falcon 9 first stage, five of which have been purposefully expended during the second flight, only 3 first stages remain that can be reflown.

A Sooty Falcon 9
The Falcon 9 was left sooty after its first flight which has now become the norm. Image from @marcuscotephoto on twitter.

The second stage completed its burn at 9 minutes and 11 seconds after takeoff, to insert Dragon into a Low Earth Orbit inclined 51.6 degrees to the equator. The Dragon 10.2 is a refurbished spacecraft capsule that first flew during the CRS-8 mission in April 2016. CRS-14 was the third launch of a previously flown Dragon capsule. This was also the first time that both the Dragon capsule and the Falcon 9 were refurbished versions on the same rocket. The docking process was carried out for around 20 minutes, and at 10:40 UTC Kanai detached the lab’s robotic arm to hook the free-flying Dragon capsule. At around 12:00 UTC Houston and Canada took control of the robotic arm and maneuvered it to the Harmony capsule of the ISS. It will be unpacked in a very slow process over a number of months.

Falcon 9 CRS-14
A falcon 9 lifting off from Cape Canaveral AFB Launch Complex 40. Image from SpaceX Flickr.

CRS-14 vapour streams
You can see the vapour streams coming off the falcon 9 as it sends its cargo towards the ISS. Image from SpaceX Flickr.

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