Halfpenny Bridge: The Bridge Over Nothing

If you walk down Union street in Plymouth, just before you come to Devonport you will come across what looks like a bridge. Called Stonehouse Bridge, it comes from a time when Plymouth had a very large river/lake separating Devonport and Plymouth-Town. Originally to get across the creek to what was then known as Plymouth-Dock, you had to take the pedestrian ferry, or go all the way up to Mill bridge. So in 1767 Lord Mount Edgcumbe, who was lord of the manor of East Stonehouse, and Sir John Saint Aubyn, Lord of the Manor of Stoke Damerel, obtained an act of Parliament authorising construction of a bridge. The idea was to allow for a more direct link between Plymouth-Dock and East Stonehouse. It made sense when in the Act they described the old ferry as ‘narrow and could only be used by foot passengers’.

Stonehouse Bridge, Plymouth, engraved by W.B. Cooke 1836 Clarkson Frederick Stanfield 1793-1867

The man who designed the Eddystone Lighthouse, that now stands on Plymouth Hoe, John Smeaton, was invited to design the bridge. The bridge charged a toll to get across it, like many bridges of the time, and it was fixed by the act of parliament. It cost 2d return for a 1-horse drawn vehicle, 3d for  a 2 horse vehicle, and 6d for wagons drawn by more than 2 horses. The nickname ‘Halfpenny Bridge’ was from the halfpenny it cost for pedestrians to cross, also it was sometimes pronounced ‘Ha’penny Bridge’. Interestingly it absolved the owners from paying any public or parochial rate or tax.

The old 5 horse car at the halfpenny gate

Opened in 1773, the approach to it was via Stonehouse lane (now known as King Street) and the High Street, rather than Union Street. in 1775 the first carriages began to be hired between Plymouth and Plymouth Dock, over the new bridge. Carriages were popular but Stonehouse lane was described as ‘ruinous’ and a new road was needed. A further Act of Parliament was obtained in 1784 to create the Stonehouse Turnpike Trust. In 1815  Union Street was finally opened, as a turnpike, the users paid a toll to use the bridge, that went to the upkeep of it.  So users now had to pay for the bridge and the road leading up to it. Turnpikes were very popular in the 18th and 19th century and are basically a toll road. In 1828 the bridge was raised while Devonport hill was lowered. This meant that hackney carriages could now be used to provide a route between Plymouth and Devonport the following year.

Stonehouse Bridge from Richmond Walk.

Both Plymouth and Devonport tried many times to purchase the gate, but the bridge, along with Stonehouse Mill bridge were sold in February 1890 to the General Tolls Company Ltd for £122,000. The company (with the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe and Lord Saint Levan had shares in) was registered on February 12th 1980. The idea was for the owners to collect the tolls rather than auction them, which was more common at the time. From October of 1917, servicemen and nurses could get across the bridge for free.

Stonehouse creek before being filled in, from the bridge

After long negotiations, an Act of Parliament in 1923 allowed Plymouth Town Council to buy the toll rights for £100,000. This meant that the Council could have charged tolls and collected than money for up to ten year. Instead, on April 1st 1924, the Mayor, Mr Solomon Stephens, and council visited all the toll houses and declared them free.

Stonehouse Bridge Freeing Ceremony, 1924 looking towards Devonport. From a postcard

The upper end of the creek, near the Pennycomequick, was known towards the end of the 19th century as Deadlake. St Barnabas Terrace, a road now adjacent to the park, was marked on 19th century maps of the area as Deadlake Lane. Toward the end of the 19th century, culverts were made to channel the streams that ran into deadlake, and the swampland was filled in with rubble from the quarries at Oreston and Cattedown. To celebrate queen Victoria’s reign, Victoria Park, along with the park-keeper’s lodge, was formally opened to the public in 1903.

Looking down the filled in fields, towards Stonehouse

Between Mill Bridge and Stonehouse Bridge, the creek was filled in in 1972, when 600,000 tons of ballast and rubble were used to create 19 acres of land. Now a set of pitches for Devonport High School for Boys (previously the royal naval hospital) and the pitch for Devonport RFC. When you walk along it you can see some areas, especially close to the bridge where all the rubble has been added. On the water side of the bridge you can see where the arches have been filled up. Stonehouse bridge is now more of a dam, but one with some important history for Plymouth.

Halfpenny Bridge, on the side of the creek

Pioneers in Aviation: The Rolls in Rolls-Royce

Charles Stewart Rolls
Charles Rolls, the co-founder of Rolls-Royce.

Rolls Royce has always been a double sided company, the luxury cars, and the aero engines. Set up by Charles Stewart Rolls, and Frederick Henry Royce, Rolls-Royce Limited was incorporated on march 1906. Starting out as a luxury car manufacturer, they quickly developed a reputation for superior engineering quality. They reportedly developed the “best car in the world”. Henry Royce had already been running an electrical and mechanical business since 1884, and built his first car, the Royce 10 in his manchester factory in 1904. He met C.S.Rolls, an owner of a car dealership, and he was impressed with the quality of the cars. A set of cars (branded rolls-royce) were made, and sold exclusively by C.S.Rolls. This started their partnership. Rolls-Royce Limited set up its first factory in Derby, after an offer of cheap electricity from the city council.

Rolls Royce Racing
Charles Rolls, sits in the back of the 20-horsepower Rolls Royce during the 1905 TT race.

Rolls could be described as a pioneer aviator. As an accomplished balloonist, he made over 170 balloon ascents. He was also a founding member of the Royal Aero Club in 1903, and was the second person in Britain to be licenced to fly by them. That same year he won the Gordon Bennett Medal for the longest single flight time. By 1907 though, he started getting interested in flying, and tried to get his then partner, Royce, to design an aero engine. With Royce not convinced, Rolls, in 1909 bought one of six Wright Flyer’s built by the short brothers. He made more than 200 flights, one of which, on the 2 June 1910, he became the first person to make a non-stop double crossing of the English channel by plane. For this 95 minute flight, he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Aero Club.

Rolls flying
Rolls in the plane he flew across the channel twice in.

On 12th July 1910, Rolls was killed in an air crash at Hengistbury Airfield, Southbourne, Bournemouth. He was 32 when the tail of his Wright Flyer broke off during a display. He was the 11th person to die in an aeronautical accident, and the first ever Briton. A statue of him is in St Peter’s school which was built on the site of Hengistbury Airfield.

Death of Charles Stewart Rolls
Photograph on the front page of the Illustrated London News, 16 July 1910, showing the wreckage of the plane crash which killed Rolls

Pioneers in Aviation: William Boeing

William Boeing was an aviator with a different upbringing than what you would imagine, nothing to do with engineering or even military. Aiming to profit from the Northwest timber industry from an early age, yet he went on to create one of the biggest aerospace companies ever known, one known in almost all households.

William Boeing

Born October 1st 1881 in Detroit, Michigan to a wealthy mining engineer Wilhelm Böing and Marie M. Ortmann. From Germany and Austria. Boeing Sr had made his fortune through timber and mineral rights near Lake Superior in North America. Up until 1899 young Boeing was educated in Vevey, Switzerland, when he returned he changed his name to William Boeing. Studying at Yale University, Boeing left before graduating in 1903. Starting a new life in Grays Harbour, Washington, he aimed to profit from the lands that he had inherited from his father, who had died of Influenza in 1890. He learned the logging business on his own, eventually buying more timber land and adding more wealth to the approximately $1 million estate left to him (around £26.8 in today’s money) by his parents. This included expeditions to Alaska. One of the main reasons for his success was due to him shipping lumber to the east coast using the Panama Canal.

In 1908 he moved to Seattle, to establish the Greenwood Timber company. He started off by living in an apartment hotel, but after just a year he got elected as a member of the Highlands, a brand-new, exclusive residential suburb. During this time, Boeing was interested in boats, and often experimented with boat designs. So much so in 1910 he bought the Heath shipyard on the Duwamish River. This was so he could build a yacht, named the Taconite, after the mineral that made his father’s fortune. His love of aircraft came from a trip while in Seattle in 1909, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition was a world’s fair publicizing development in the Pacific Northwest. Boeing was visiting as he had interests in the area. While there he saw a manned flight, and he became fascinated.

Taconite
The Taconite, the 125ft teak yaght built by Boeing

In 1910 Boeing attended an aviation meet in Los Angeles, where he tried to get a ride on a boxy biplane, he didn’t succeed. This didn’t deter him though, he took flying lessons at the Glenn L. Martin Fling School in Los Angeles, and even purchased one of his planes, a Martin TA Hydroaeroplane. James Floyd Smith, a Martin pilot travelled to Seattle to assemble Boeing’s plane and teach him how to fly it. Smith assembled the plane in a tent hanger on the shore of Lake Union, and so Boeing became a pilot. At some point, Boeing’s test pilot broke the plane enough for it to be unusable. Martin informed Boeing that the parts would take months to become available, obviously this was an inconvenience. In 1915, Boeing was introduced to Navy Lieutenant G. Conrad Westervelt, and they soon became close friends. When a mutual friend brought a Curtis-type hydroplane to Seattle later that year, they took turns flying it over lake washington. After just a few trips, Boeing and Westervelt felt that they could build a better airplane. Boeing decided to buy an old boat works on the Duwamish river in Seattle for his factory and set up shop, he was now in the aircraft business.

Boeing Plant
The Boeing Plant on the Duwamish River around 1917

Together with Westervelt they built and flew the B&W seaplane. This was an amphibious biplane that had outstanding performance compared to it’s competitors. This sealed the deal for him, and Westervelt. Together they founded Pacific Aero Products Co in 1916. Their first plane, basically the B&W Seaplane was named the Boeing Model 1. At this time, the world was in the middle of World War 1, and on April 8th 1917, the United States joined the fight. Suddenly there was a need for defence manufacturers. A month later, The name was changed from Pacific Aero Products, to the Boeing Airplane Company. The United States Navy ordered 50 planes from Boeing. When the war ended, the need for military aircraft dwindled, and Boeing started concentrating on the lucrative supply of commercial aircraft. He secured mass contracts to supply airmail, and also created a passenger airline that would later go on to become United Airlines.

B&W Seaplane
The B&W Seaplane, sitting on the water

In 1934 the Boeing company had become massive considering the time. It had an airmail business, commercial airline, manufacturing of planes and many other branches of interest. This sparked controversy in the US government, and he was accused of monopolistic practices. That year the Air Mail Act forced airplane companies to separate flight operations from the manufacturing of planes. At this point Boeing separated himself from the company, and divested himself of ownership. The company was then split into three sections. The United Aircraft Corporation a manufacturing arm, based in the east, Now United TechnologiesUnited Airlines which handled flight operations, and still functions as such, and Boeing Airplane Company which was manufacturing based in the west, this went on to become the Boeing Company that we all know today. By 1937 he had started spending most of his time breeding horses, and the new Boeing Company would not become truly successful until World War 2.

Boeing spent the remainder of his life in property development, and the breeding of thoroughbred horses. He was said to be worried about the tensions in the Pacific Northwest due to WW2. This led him to purchase a 650 acre farm east of Seattle. He called it “Aldarra”. He would go on to die September 28th, 1956 at the age of 74 (a year before the release of the release of the 707). He died of a heart attack while on his yacht. His estate was eventually sold off and turned into a golf course in 2001, but parts still remain today, including Boeing’s main home, and two smaller houses. His house in the Highlands was also listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Also a creek running near his house in the Highlands was renamed Boeing Creek after him.

Boeing Creek
The Creek named after Boeing, running near his house in the Highlands

Pioneers in Aviation: Donald Wills Douglas, Sr

Donald Wills Douglas, Sr was a real aviation Pioneer, from actually viewing the trials of the Wright Flyer, to creating the Douglas Cloudster, and creating the company that would eventually go up against Boeing, building some of the most famous aircraft in the world, even the Saturn V! You could say he has some experience in the world of aviation.

Born April 6th 1892 in Brooklyn New York, the son of an assistant cashier at the National Park Bank. Being an early enthusiast of aviation, in autumn 1908 at the age of 16, he convinced his mother to take him to see the Fort Myer trials of the Wright Flyer. Graduating in 1909, he enrolled in the United States Naval Academy. There are stories of Douglas building model airplanes out of rubber bands and motors in his dormitory at Annapolis. Then flying them on the grounds of the academy’s armory. In 1912 he resigned from the academy to pursue his dream of a career in aeronautical engineering. Applying to jobs at Grover Loening and Glenn Curtiss, and being rejected, he ended up enrolling in MIT. He received a Bachelors of Science in Aeronautical Engineering in 1914. He was the first person to ever receive this degree because he completed the 4 year course in half that time.

Donald W Douglas
Donald W Douglas, Sr holding a prototype of the DC-8 Circa 1955

In 1915 after a year working as an assistant to a professor at MIT, Douglas joined the Connecticut Aircraft Company, and was part of the team that designed the DN-1, the Navy’s first Dirigible (also known as an airship). That august, he left to start working for the Glenn Martin Company, where he was the Chief Engineer, at the young age of 23. During his time there he designed the Martin S seaplane. Not long after that, Douglas left when Glenn Martin merged with the Wright Company. He became the Chief Civilian Aeronautical engineer, of the Aviation section of the US Army Signal Corps. Then a short time after that he moved back to the new Glenn L. Martin Company, as the Chief Engineer, designing the Martin MB-1 bomber in his time there.

Glen Martin MB-1
Glen Martin MB-1 designed by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr

In March of 1920 he gave up his job, which was paying $10,000 a year ($125,000 in today’s money) and moved to California where he had met his wife Charlotte Marguerite Ogg. There he started his own aircraft company, the Davis-Douglas Company. The Davis was from David Davis a millionaire, and his financing partner, who payed $40,000 into the company. The aim of the company was to develop an aircraft that could fly from coast to coast non-stop. This aircraft was called the Douglas Cloudster, and unfortunately failed in its challenge. Although it didn’t achieve the challenge, it was the first airplane that could carry a payload greater than it’s own weight. The failure was too much for Davis, who left the partnership, and in 1921 Douglas founded the Douglas Aircraft Company.

The Douglas Cloudster
The Douglas Cloudster made by the Davis-Douglas company

Douglas was now regarded as a great engineer and a bold entrepreneur. Even though his Cloudster had failed, his new company, the Douglas Aircraft Company was a bit hit. In 1922 he employed 68 people, but with the increase in sales due to WW2, and the increase in passenger planes, the Douglas Aircraft Company became the 4th largest company in the United States. A year and a half before Pearl Harbour, he was already writing about how it “was the hour of destiny for American aviation”. Until 1957 Douglas was President of the Company, until he passed that position over to his son when he retired, and became the Chairman. In 1967 Douglas Aircraft Company Merged with McDonnell Aircraft to form McDonnell Douglas. This company would then go on to merge with Boeing in 1997.

Donald W Douglas, Sr
Donald W Douglas, Sr standing next to a new DC-7

Donald Wills Douglas, Sr died aged 88 on February 2nd, 1981. He is widely regarded as a great engineer and businessman, with plenty of awards to his name, and is listed as 7th in Flying’s magazines 51 heroes of aviation.

The Abandoned Buran Launch Site

So on my recent search for history on the Buran Shuttle, I came across this blog post. Although I had to use the Wayback machine to see it, it shows some great shots of the place where the Buran Shuttle used to launch.

Signpost

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The images show the way that the test site has been left to rust away. Although still obviously a launch site, the stone is breaking, and the machines obviously havn’t been used in a long time.

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As you can see, there is still rubbish piled up, remains of old vehicles, and random scrap metal everywhere. Almost like everyone just up and left. If you have read any of my other posts on the Buran, you will know that is basically what happened. Around 1993, the USSR crumbled and the Buran shuttle programme was left behind. This is why this launch site is still like this, and why urban explorers can go out and take pictures.

On top of this, they found a few other things, including an actual Buran shuttle. Although not a working version, more of a prototype, this shuttle shows how it probably would have looked back in the day. I believe this is the version found at the Gagarin museum in the Baikonur Cosmodrome, close to the launch site found in these pictures. This one is on display to the public, and was refurbished in 2007.

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The last thing that they found was a large machine. More specifically, the machine used to transport the Shuttle to the launch site. A colossal platform, that could move the shuttle and the solid rocket boosters needed for the flight. Unfortunately it was only ever used once in 1988, the only BUran flight ever. So it hasn’t seen much action. It was different to the USA’s Crawler-transporter because it was pulled by 5 diesel trains.

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The Oak Tree

In this particular post, we are going to talk about the Oak tree, or more specifically the English Oak tree, and how we can use it. The Oak is one of those classic English trees, its a recognisable name, and most people will have things in their house that are made from Oak. How can it be used though? Well in this post we will go over some interesting uses, and what makes it special.

How to spot it

Before we can use it, we have to be able to identify it. There are some distinctive points about the Oak tree, to help you distinguish it from other trees. The Oak is a large tree, about 20m-40m tall when fully grown. It is also deciduous, so it loses it’s leaves in the autumn. When the Oak gets older it forms a broad crown on top, so no spike. It grows big sturdy branches underneath, so overall it forms a nice rounded tree, which is quite distinctive. The canopy it forms is actually really good at letting light through, so you generally find lots of plants growing underneath them; these can include primroses and bluebells, and other woodland floor plants. Young oaks have quite smooth and silvery bark, but as they get older, they get huge cracks and crevices throughout, this is a great way to differentiate from other trees.

The leaves are also pretty recognisable, they tend to be about 10cm long, with 4 or 5 big deep rounded lobes along the edges, these are smooth. Be aware though, that the amount of lobes can change between different forms of oak, in fact this is one big way of differentiating between them. The leaves generally don’t have much in the way of a stem, and grow in bunches, close together. They really grow around mid may. The Oak also flowers, the long yellow hanging catkins distribute pollen into the air. In the winter, the tree can be identified by bunches of rounded buds, with each bud having 3 or more scales.

Technically the Oak has fruits, although we know them as acorns. They are generally 2-2.5cm long, on fairly long stalks, and have a little cup that they sit in (called a cupule). While they grow  they are a green colour, but as they ripen they become a more autumnal brown. At this point they loosen from the cupule and fall to the floor. Anyone who has walked around an oak tree knows there can be many of them. These acorns are a rich food source, so they don’t hang around long. Many wild creatures come along to feast on them, like squirrels, jays and mice. For them to germinate, they need to root quickly, before they dry out.

The Oak is generally found in the northern hemisphere, in cool regions as well as tropical climates. In England they are found in southern and central woods.

Why are They Useful?

In terms of wildlife, the Oak tree is rich in biodiversity, and arguably support more life forms than any other tree native to Britain. In the autumn the falling acorns are often eaten by badgers and deer. These acorns are technically edible, but read up on ways to prepare them first, they contain tannins, which should really be removed before eating. 10,000 years ago, humans used acorns to make flour. Also during autumn, beetles and fungi take advantage of the fallen leaves. The leaves are soft, and break down easily, forming a rich environment underneath the tree. Birds are often found nesting in the Holes that the Oak’s bark provides, bats also use some of these holes, mainly due to the rich supply of insects.

The Oak tree has forever been known as a hard and durable timber, even it’s latin name Quercus Robur means strength. So it has been used for centuries as a building material, up until the 19th century, it was the primary ship building material. Unfortunately, it takes up to 150 years before an oak is ready to be used in construction. For those who want to tan leather, the bark of the Oak contains Tannin, and has been used for this purpose since roman times. This Tannic acid is also found in it’s leaves, and is poisonous to horses, and humans, damaging the kidneys.

If you wanted to plant your own acorn, it needs to be as soon as it falls to stop it drying out, if its right, a sapling should arrive the following spring.

Best Uses for an Oak Tree

For the keen bushcrafter, here is the main uses for oak trees.

  • Harvesting acorns, although these need to be processed before edible, its a great free source of food.
  • Plenty of insects to eat living in the tree, they also attract squirrels, birds, badgers and deer. So depending on how brave you are, there could be some good meals to be found.
  • Strong wood, things like digging sticks, tools, or anything that needs strength or impact resistance.
  • The inner bark of a dead branch is a good tinder.
  • The leaves do not rot very fast, and are often the last left on the forest, so could be used for shade, huts, or maybe even flooring.
  • The wood is good to burn for a fire. It burns wells, and produces a heat good enough for cooking.
  • The tannin found all over the tree is good for stopping bleeding, it does it by making the capillaries contract.

Plymouth Castle

So as we discussed in a previous post, Plymouth wasn’t always the power that it is today. In fact, in 1066, during the norman conquest, it was still called Sutton Pool, and had a population of 18 people. So realistically, there was no real need for any sort of fortification. The only place with a need for protection was just up the river at Plympton. Here, there was a Motte and Bailey Castle. Basically a small keep on top of a big hill, surprisingly effective at the time.

Over time though, the river changed, and the need of Sutton as a main port suddenly became of strategic importance. Around the start of the hundred years war in 1337 it was attracting unwanted attention from continental forces. It’s thought that earthwork defences were built around this time on the hoe and waterfront. There was also likely to have been similar works on the other side of the river at mount batten.

The most important part of this defence was Plymouth castle. In 1377 a murage grant was received, this is basically a tax specifically for castles, walls and other defences. The exact date that it was built is unknown, but it was first recorded in the early 1400’s. The castle was on the western side of Sutton Pool. It had 4 sides, with round towers on each corner, with curtain walls, 4 meters high. The main need for the castle was to control a chain that was raised to stop access to the harbour. If a ship got caught in this, it would be subjected to the castle’s cannons. The castle’s entrance was shielded by a barbican, which now lends its name to a part of the city.

There is no official date that the castle is said to have been built, but based around events we can give a good range. In 1340 during the Hundred Years’ War, the town was attacked by a flotilla of french raiders. Although they burned a manor house, and took some prisoners, they failed to get into the town. It was said to be due to an effective defence, this could be the castle, or it could just have been earthworks. There was another attack by the french in 1377. This lead to the murage grant to fund fortification, this may well be the money used to build the castle, but it could also have been used to fund walls or earthworks.

In 1400, it was likely that the castle was in existence, as it allegedly drove off a fleet of french ships. It was said that an english force of ships were being pursued by James of Bourbon, Count le Marche. The english forces sought refuge in Sutton harbour and scared them away. In august 1403 the castle was definitely present, and provided refuge when a Breton army landed at Cattewater and attacked and burned the town. This attack is still remembered today, by a part of the town known as Bretonside. This is the point where the invaders were stopped by the citizens marching out from the castle to attack them.

After this the castle saw very little real action. Other parts of the city were being fortified, and the castle became less important in the grand scheme. In 1549, it did play a part in the Prayer Book Rebellion; where cornishmen rebelled against the law created to have all church services in the land to be conducted in the english language. The Cornish at the time rarely spoke english, and so a rebellion started. At a point during this time, the town was besieged by rebels. The town quickly surrendered, but the castle didn’t, it held members of the crown and protestants, likely targets by the rebels. Eventually the rebellion was defeated, and the siege was lifted.

In 1588, the castle played a small part in the attack on the Spanish Armada. The English Navy took shelter from the wind and waited for the tide in Sutton harbour. The Castle gave the Navy a good defence. Unfortunately after this, in the Elizabethan era defences had moved on from simple castles. Sir Francis Drake (kinda famous in Plymouth) built an artillery fort on the Hoe. The structure, eventually known as Drake’s Fort was partially built using stone from Plymouth Castle. After this the closest it got to any action was during the civil war, when it held a parliamentary Garrison. Although, because Royalists controlled Mount Batten, Millbay on the west side of the harbour was used over Sutton Harbour so the castle wasn’t used as a military structure.

That is basically the History of Plymouth Castle. The castle itself eventually fell into disrepair, actually described as ruinous. It was used as a prison, and also a workhouse for a time. Unfortunately, in the 19th century, during the population boom, the remains were slowly robbed to be used in houses and other building projects. There is only a small part of the gatehouse still existing, and it has been turned into a part of a garden.

castle gatehouse
The remnants of the Castle Gatehouse
castle gatehouse
The remnants of the castle gatehouse, and the building development behind it
garden in the castle
The garden set into the old gatehouse

Fun fact: the four towers of Plymouth Castle are said to be remembered in the towns coat of arms, with 4 towers separated by st. Andrews cross (the patron St of Plymouth). The towers are said to be protecting him.

plymouth coat of arms
Plymouths Coat of Arms on a JaJa Postcard in 1925

The Golden Hind

A famous person in the history of Plymouth is Sir Francis Drake, i’m sure many of his expeditions will make it into this section of my blog in the future, but today we are going to talk about a famous ship that he sailed, the Golden Hind.

So in 1577, Queen Elizabeth chose Francis Drake for the most daring challenge of the day. To lead an expedition, passing through South America via the Strait of Magellan. Exploring the coasts that lay beyond it. Before setting sail, Drake met the queen face to face for the first time. She reportedly said “We would gladly be revenged on the King of Spain for divers injuries that we have received.

Why was this important? Well this basically meant the queen backed him. He had official approval to benefit himself and the queen (the queen had shares in the expedition). On top of this he was told to cause maximum damage to the Spaniards. The problem was, Drake took this too far, and acted more like a privateer. They weren’t to know at the time, but this would eventually lead to the Anglo-Spanish war.

He set sail in December 1577, with 5 small ships with a total of 164 men manning them. Reaching the coast of Brazil in early 1578. Note at this time, Drake’s flagship was named the “Pelican”, and it was small only displacing around 100 tons. Mid way through the journey, Drake had the inspiration to rename the ship the “Golden Hind”. Named after his patron (the man who payed for most of it) Sir Christopher Hatton; who was at the time, one of the queens favourites. His crest was a Golden ‘hind’, another word for a female deer.

The date that made the Golden Hind a big name was the 1st of March 1579, when they were in the Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Ecuador. The ship challenged and captured a Spanish galleon. Named Nuestra Señora de la Concepción the galleon had the largest treasure ever captured up to that date, at over 360,000 pesos. The six tons of treasure took 6 days to move between ships.

Why is Plymouth important in this story? well it is the first harbour that the ship sailed into when it got home, on the 26th september 1580, a famous day in Plymouths history. Note that of the 80 people the ship left with, only 56 were left aboard.

Even though Drake basically acted like a pirate, the Queen herself went aboard the Golden hind when it sailed to Depthord in the Thames Estuary. There Drake got bestowed with a knighthood, and went into the history books. What did the queen get, around £160,000. This was reportedly enough to “pay off her entire foreign debt and still have £40,000 left to reinvest. The return to all the investors came to £47 for every £1 invested, or 4700%, a good return in anyone’s book.

What happened to the Golden hind in the end? well it basically stayed in Deptford. Maintained for public display, incidentally the first ship to be kept and displayed in this manner because of the historical significance. It remained there for around 100 years, and eventually rotted away and was finally broken up. It’s still not gone or forgotten though, parts were reportedly made into a table in Middle Temple Hall in london, and a chair in Buckland Abbey in devon, also the Pelican Inn in Gloucester claims to be made with some timbers from the ship.

 

My First Post About Plymouth – The Early Ages

So I have been living in Plymouth as a student for the past few years, studying at Plymouth University. It’s a great place, but I realised I don’t really know anything about it, or it’s history. So I have decided to start finding it out. I intend to post all the interesting stuff I find out here on my blog.

Where better to start that.. well the start! Or at least as far back as is recorded. The early history of the Plymouth area.

There have been many excavations and archaeological digs conducted over the years, with one of the most notable by Barry Cuncliff in 1988. During excavations in local caves in the Mount Batten area, Homo Sapiens were found, along with artefacts dating from the bronze age through to iron age. According to Cuncliff, this shows that it was one of the main trading ports of the country at that time. He goes on to state that Mount Batten was the site of the earliest trade with Europe yet discovered in bronze age Britain.

Ptolemy’s Geographia talks about an unidentified settlement named “TAMARI OSTIA” which translates to mouth/estuaries of the river Tamar. This could be the the location of the modern city of Plymouth, it could also be Mount Batten, or even potentially the settlement of Plympton just up the river.

The modern name of Plymouth is thought to have come from the fact it is at the mouth of the river  Plym. Just up the river is the old town of Plympton, was recorded as Plymentun circa 900. There are many theories about where this name comes from, some say its from the old english word for “plum tree” (ploumenn). Other theories include the Latin for tin (Plumbum), or the Cornish word for lead (Plomm). All we know is that the first recorded name for the river was the Plyme in 1238. About this time are the first recorded name of Plymouth as a settlement (Plymmue in 1230, and Plimmuth in 1234). Previous to this though, and area known as Plym Mouth was noted in a Pipe roll in 1211. 

Plympton was at one point an early trading port, up until around the early 11th century, when the river became very silted, and forced merchants and mariners to trade instead in modern day Plymouth, around the area of the Barbican, much closer to the rivers mouth. At this time there was only a village there called Sutton, an old English word meaning “south town”. Although the town has been mentioned in many documents, Plymouth officially replaced the name Sutton in a Charter of King Henry VI in 1440.

I hope you find my first post about Plymouth informative, and interesting. I plan on doing quite a few of these posts, comments would be appreciated, and ideas that people want would also be great. Thanks for reading.