The Space Missions of 2018

2018 has definitely been a big year for space, and space exploration. I have managed to capture a few of the great moments like the launch of InSight, JAXA landing rovers on an asteroid, and the launch of the Parker Probe. There have been a few others that are notable mentions, and that is the point of this post, to talk about some great launched missions, and others that have finished their jobs, purposely or forced.


The British built Bepicolombo launched in October 20th, to begin its 7 year journey to visit Mercury. Currently one of the least explored planets in the solar system, Bepicolombo intends to change that. When it arrives in late 2025 it will endure temperatures of over 350 °C, and be there for at least a year, possibly for twice that. It is made up of two spacecraft, the Mercury Planet Orbiter (MPO) lead by ESA, and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) lead by JAXA. The aim is to measure the composition, atmosphere and magnetosphere of Mercury to understand its history. This could lead to understanding more about how other planets such as Earth formed. BepiColombo is named after Professor Giuseppe (Bepi) Colombo (1920-1984) from the University of Padua, Italy. He made big leaps in understanding Mercury, and suggested to NASA how to use a gravity-assist swing-by of Venus to place Mariner 10 into a solar orbit of Mercury.

Bepicolombo artists impression
Artist’s impression of the BepiColombo spacecraft in cruise configuration. The Mercury Transfer Module is at the bottom. The Mercury Planetary Orbiter is in the middle. The Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter sits inside the sunshield, visible at the top. Credit: ESA/ATG medialab


Back in May I posted about how an Atlas V had just lifted the Mars Insight lander. In late November the $814 million lander it reached its target of the Elysium Planitia region of Mars, landing safely. The aim is for it investigate how the processes that shaped all the inner rocky planets more than 4 billion years ago worked. It uses two seismometers (one of which built by RAL space in the UK) and a number of other instruments to study the crust, mantle and core of the red planet. It works by measuring how much the area shakes when asteroids hit the planet. Also measuring the heat flow and precision tracking it is getting a glimpse of Mars we have yet to see. The launch also allowed for two cubesats, MarCO-A and MarCO-B to be the first to be launched into deep space. The first test of miniaturised cubesat technology being used on another planet. This mission will be one to watch for the near future.

There’s a quiet beauty here. Looking forward to exploring my new home. #MarsLanding— NASA InSight (@NASAInSight) November 27, 2018


A bit sadder news is the end of the Kepler space telescope after 9 years service. It has collected a huge amount of data in its lifetime, finding the night sky is filled with billions of hidden planets, more planets than stars. This may seem obvious but is not easy to prove. During its time the planet hunter has found evidence of more than 2,600 planets outside our solar system, and left hints at many more, paving the way for future planet hunters and getting good engineering data on what works and what doesn’t. Telescopes such as ARIEL which will launch in the net decade will have better design due to Kepler. The space telescope had been running low on fuel for months, and struggled to point the correct way. After the 4 year mission it continued to work a different mission named K2. In October it was officially declared dead, left in orbit as it may have been dangerous for it to enter the atmosphere.

The Kepler Space Telescope mission, by the numbers
The Kepler Space Telescope mission, by the numbers. Credit: NASA/Ames/Wendy Stenzel

Parker Solar Probe

Back in august I wrote about the classic Delta IV heavy launching with the Parker Solar Probe aboard. The aim is to get closer to the sun than previously possible. Over the next seven years the probe will make 24 close approaches to the sun, with the aim of eventually getting within 3.8 million miles of the surface. The previous record (that Parker has now broken) was 26.6 million miles, set in 1976. It will revolutionise our understanding of the sun, and how the changing conditions can affect the solar system. It will use Venus’ gravity to slowly get closer to the sun. As a reference, we are 93 million miles away from the sun. It will eventually fly through the sun’s outer atmosphere, known as the Corona for the first time, getting brand new, in situ measurements. The spacecraft has a 4.5 inch thick carbon composite shield to protect it from the heat and radiation. The temperatures will reach over 1300 C.

Parker Solar Probe in the Fairing
Parker Solar Probe in the Fairing, ready to be put on the rocket in the clean room. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins APL/Ed Whitman


Back in April I posted about the launch of the TESS exoplanet hunter by a Falcon 9. I have already talked about exoplanets and planet hunters, and this is a big part of that plan. TESS stands for Transiting Exoplanet Surveying Satellite, and it does what it says on the tin, it is surveying the sky for potential exoplanets. Basically it is looking for exoplanets that could harbour life. The expectation is that it will catalog thousands of planet candidates and vastly increase the known number of exoplanets. Approximately 300 are expected to be Earth-sized and super-Earth-sized exoplanets that can then use the future more complex telescopes such as JWST to look at in more detail. The satellite will look at the sky for two years by breaking it up into 26 sections, and looking at each one for 27 days at a time. Unlike Kepler and K2 TESS will be looking at brighter stars, meaning ground based observatories can corroborate the observations.

the TESS telescope
The TESS satellite before launch, the four cameras can be seen on the top of the spacecraft; Credit: NASA.


In September I posted about the Dawn spacecraft and the rise of Ion Engines. With the loss of the Dawn mission around the same time as Kepler, they ran out of fuel within two days of each other. The 11 year Dawn mission racked up a few very important records. It is the first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies, and the first to orbit any object in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It is also a record breaker for electric speed. Travelling over 25,700 mph. Visiting Ceres and Vesta, it found out some very important scientific data that tells us a huge amount about the formation of our solar system. With a large proportion of the meteorites hitting Earth coming from these two bodies, Dawn showed the difference between the potential dwarf planets. One of the early uses of ion engines, it also showed the potential of the efficient form of travel, and now many more satellites are using them.

Dawn prior to encapsulation at its launch pad on July 1, 2007. Credit: NASA/Amanda Diller

Mars Rovers

This is a mixed bag, we have already had great news about the InSight lander, with it recording sounds of Martian winds, the rovers also have big news this year. In June the Curiosity rover found Organic matter in the Martian soil. The samples, taken from 3 billion year old mudstone contained complex hydrocarbons. This along with its detection of methane changes in the atmosphere are one step along the way to finding evidence of life on other planets. There have also been many more photos from the red planet, with Curiosity taking a few more selfies. See here how the car sized rover achieves the great pictures. On the other side of it there was a huge Martian storm that may have killed the Opportunity rover by covering the solar panels in dust. Although there are still hopes the rover can start communications again, we will have to see.

Curiosity in a dust storm
An image shared by Seán Doran on Sunday of the Mars Curiosity in the middle of a dust storm reported to cover an area the size of the US and Russia Combined. CredIt: NASA/JPL/Seán Doran.

Asteroid Rovers

In late september, another great story came out, that JAXA (the Japanese space agency) successfully landed a number of rovers on an asteroid. Still to launch all of the four onto the surface, there are already great images from the surface of an asteroid. The little rovers use a hopping mechanism to get around, as the gravity on the asteroid is so small a wheeled rover just wouldn’t work. The spacecraft will also be attempting to collect samples to return to Earth in the coming years. The Hayabusa 2 probe is a follow up to the Hayabusa probe which was not a sample return. The second launched on December 3rd 2014 and rendezvoused with the near-earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu on the 27th of June 2018. Currently in the process of surveying the asteroid for a year and a half, it will depart in December 2019, returning to Earth in December 2020.

First pictures from a MINERVA-II-1 rover that landed on the asteroid. Credit: JAXA.

Thank you for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, or military history. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on. Most of all, thank you for taking the time to read my posts this year! So all have a Happy New Year, and here’s to a great 2019 in space!

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How the Moon’s Dust Could be Deadly

footprint on the moon
Very famous image of a footprint in the lunar soil, part of the 70mm Hasselblad image collection, you can see the dust and rocks that are classed as mature Regolith, Credit: NASA.

The space industry is changing, improving and looking at places to go. Although Mars is the big target for Elon Musk and SpaceX, revisiting the Moon is a big and real challenge that many are aiming for. Whether it is just getting people back there in a safer and cheaper way than Apollo or if it is companies wanting to design Moon bases, it is an active area of interest. Since the Moon landings over half a century ago, researchers have poured over the moon rocks, and images brought back from the mission. More recently though, researchers are looking at a slightly overlooked factor, lunar dust. They were a problem for the astronauts to landed there in the 60’s/70’s and they may pose a problem to future missions where they may spend weeks or months rather than just a few hours/days. The research below shows how the moon moon affects us when we are there, and how it could be very dangerous.

Harrison Schmitt collects samples
NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt retrieving lunar samples using a scoop during the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. Credit: NASA.

At time of writing, twelve people have been known to walk on the Moon, all between 1968 and 1972. The longest any group spent on the Moon was the crew of Apollo 17 who spent just over three days there. Sleeping in the Lunar Exploration Module, the astronauts tended to collect lots of dust during the EVA’s (Extravehicular Activity). As the moon has a much lower magnetic field it gets blasted with much more radiation from the sun on the surface.  This electrostatically charges the dust particles making it much more likely to stick to the astronauts spacesuits. This linked with the lower gravity of the Moon means that the particles do not drift to the ground as fast like on Earth. Plus when the dust got into the Spacecraft it had no gravity on the trip home. All these factors meant that the astronauts inhaled lots of lunar dust during the mission.

Lunar dust particle
Fine like powder, but sharp like glass. An image of a lunar dust particle. Credit: NASA/JSC.

On earth, dust tends to be fairly round, eroded over time by wind and water. It is also not only rocks, but biological as well,  On the moon, the dust is just rocky and hasn’t been eroded over time as there is no wind or water. The particles are spikey, abrasive and nasty. All twelve of the people who landed on the moon suffered with what NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt described as “lunar hay fever”. They had symptoms like sneezing, nasal congestion and often they took time to fade. Most people know that the astronauts describe the dust as smelling like burnt gunpowder, but don’t know that it made them quite ill. Even the astronauts themselves might not have known the true reasoning behind the illness. Part of the reason is that the lunar dust has silicate in it, often found on planetary bodies with volcanic activity. As well as making the astronauts ill, it was so abrasive that it ate away at layers in the spacesuit boots, and destroyed vacuum seals on sample containers.

Eugene Cernan Hay fever
NASA astronaut Eugene Cernan inside the lunar module, still on the moon after his second moonwalk of Apollo 17. With spacesuit covered in lunar dust he complained of hay fever like symptoms. Credit: NASA.

One study by Stony Brook University School of Medicine, NY looked into the toxicity and DNA damage as a result of exposure to Lunar dust. They attempted to mimic the effect of lunar regolith (the dust) on mammalian cells. They took lung and neuronal cells and then exposed them to materials processed to mimic lunar dust so they could assess survival and genotoxicity. They showed that the soil can cause death to some cells and DNA damage in both neuronal and lung cell lines. Certain forms of the dust had more effect than others, but it was shown that depending on conditions, lunar soil can be cytotoxic (toxic to living cells) and genotoxic (damages genetic information) to both neuronal cells and lung cells. Testing was done by cultures and not tested on real people or animals. Kim Prisk, a pulmonary physiologist from the University of California with over 20 years of experience in human spaceflight is taking part in similar research as Part of an ESA research program. She mentions that “Particles 50 times smaller than a human hair can hang around for months inside your lungs. The longer the particle stays, the greater the chance for toxic effects”. ESA make simulated moon dust from a volcanic region in Germany. See their post on Lunar dust here.

Thank You for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space or electronics, or follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

Final Rokot Launches Sentinel 3B

What Sentinel 3B looks like
Artist’s view of what Sentinel 3B looks like when up in space, sadly there are not many images of it for real! Credit: ESA/ATG Medialab

On April 25th, 2018, at 17:57 UTC a Russian Rokot/Briz KM rocket launched from Site 133, pad 3 from Plesetsk Cosmodrome. Aboard was Sentinel 3B, an Earth observing satellite, part of Europe’s Copernicus environmental monitoring network. This marks the final commercial Rokot Launch, and the final Eurokot mission. There are some more Rockot launches planned for the Russian government though, after which it is reportedly that the repurposed missile launch system will be retired.

Sentinel-3B UC exit from MIK go to Launch pad
The Sentinel 3B being transported to the launchpad by the russian train system.

Sentinel 3B is a Thales Alenia Space Prima Bus satellite, designed to measure ocean temperatures, colour, surface height and the thickness of sea ice. While it is over land it can measure the height of rivers and lakes, monitor wildfires, provide maps of land use and monitor vegetation. The satellite has been designed for many uses. Created for the European Space Agency, the satellite will join Sentinel 3A in orbit to symmetrically monitor the Earth. The data will be primarily fed into the Copernicus Environmental Monitoring Service, where the applications can be developed from to use the data.

Sentinel 3B in integration
An image of the Sentinel 3B satellite just before it was sent off to Russia to be put on the Rokot. Credit ESA

The satellite carries many payloads to track the huge amount of data it is recording, these include:

  • OLCI (Ocean and Land Colour Instrument)
  • SLSTR (Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer)
  • SRAL (Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter)
  • MWR (Microwave Radiometer)
  • LRR (Laser Retroreflector)
  • GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)

Thales Alenia Space was the prime contractor, responsible for constructing the spacecraft and the SRAL instrument, as well as contributing to the supply of the SLSTR instrument. Many European companies were involved in supplying the SLSTR instrument, including SELEX Galileo, RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), Jena-Optronik, Thales Alenia Space, ABSL and ESA-ESTEC. EADS CASA Espacio was contracted to provide the MWR instrument. CNES was contracted to provide the DORIS instrument.

Mediterranean Sea
An image of the Mediterranean Sea taken by Sentinel 3A, the partner of Sentinel 3B, they will don the same job on opposite sides of the Earth. Credit: ESA