Pioneers in Aviation: William Boeing

William Boeing was an aviator with a different upbringing than what you would imagine, nothing to do with engineering or even military. Aiming to profit from the Northwest timber industry from an early age, yet he went on to create one of the biggest aerospace companies ever known, one known in almost all households.

William Boeing

Born October 1st 1881 in Detroit, Michigan to a wealthy mining engineer Wilhelm Böing and Marie M. Ortmann. From Germany and Austria. Boeing Sr had made his fortune through timber and mineral rights near Lake Superior in North America. Up until 1899 young Boeing was educated in Vevey, Switzerland, when he returned he changed his name to William Boeing. Studying at Yale University, Boeing left before graduating in 1903. Starting a new life in Grays Harbour, Washington, he aimed to profit from the lands that he had inherited from his father, who had died of Influenza in 1890. He learned the logging business on his own, eventually buying more timber land and adding more wealth to the approximately $1 million estate left to him (around £26.8 in today’s money) by his parents. This included expeditions to Alaska. One of the main reasons for his success was due to him shipping lumber to the east coast using the Panama Canal.

In 1908 he moved to Seattle, to establish the Greenwood Timber company. He started off by living in an apartment hotel, but after just a year he got elected as a member of the Highlands, a brand-new, exclusive residential suburb. During this time, Boeing was interested in boats, and often experimented with boat designs. So much so in 1910 he bought the Heath shipyard on the Duwamish River. This was so he could build a yacht, named the Taconite, after the mineral that made his father’s fortune. His love of aircraft came from a trip while in Seattle in 1909, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition was a world’s fair publicizing development in the Pacific Northwest. Boeing was visiting as he had interests in the area. While there he saw a manned flight, and he became fascinated.

Taconite
The Taconite, the 125ft teak yaght built by Boeing

In 1910 Boeing attended an aviation meet in Los Angeles, where he tried to get a ride on a boxy biplane, he didn’t succeed. This didn’t deter him though, he took flying lessons at the Glenn L. Martin Fling School in Los Angeles, and even purchased one of his planes, a Martin TA Hydroaeroplane. James Floyd Smith, a Martin pilot travelled to Seattle to assemble Boeing’s plane and teach him how to fly it. Smith assembled the plane in a tent hanger on the shore of Lake Union, and so Boeing became a pilot. At some point, Boeing’s test pilot broke the plane enough for it to be unusable. Martin informed Boeing that the parts would take months to become available, obviously this was an inconvenience. In 1915, Boeing was introduced to Navy Lieutenant G. Conrad Westervelt, and they soon became close friends. When a mutual friend brought a Curtis-type hydroplane to Seattle later that year, they took turns flying it over lake washington. After just a few trips, Boeing and Westervelt felt that they could build a better airplane. Boeing decided to buy an old boat works on the Duwamish river in Seattle for his factory and set up shop, he was now in the aircraft business.

Boeing Plant
The Boeing Plant on the Duwamish River around 1917

Together with Westervelt they built and flew the B&W seaplane. This was an amphibious biplane that had outstanding performance compared to it’s competitors. This sealed the deal for him, and Westervelt. Together they founded Pacific Aero Products Co in 1916. Their first plane, basically the B&W Seaplane was named the Boeing Model 1. At this time, the world was in the middle of World War 1, and on April 8th 1917, the United States joined the fight. Suddenly there was a need for defence manufacturers. A month later, The name was changed from Pacific Aero Products, to the Boeing Airplane Company. The United States Navy ordered 50 planes from Boeing. When the war ended, the need for military aircraft dwindled, and Boeing started concentrating on the lucrative supply of commercial aircraft. He secured mass contracts to supply airmail, and also created a passenger airline that would later go on to become United Airlines.

B&W Seaplane
The B&W Seaplane, sitting on the water

In 1934 the Boeing company had become massive considering the time. It had an airmail business, commercial airline, manufacturing of planes and many other branches of interest. This sparked controversy in the US government, and he was accused of monopolistic practices. That year the Air Mail Act forced airplane companies to separate flight operations from the manufacturing of planes. At this point Boeing separated himself from the company, and divested himself of ownership. The company was then split into three sections. The United Aircraft Corporation a manufacturing arm, based in the east, Now United TechnologiesUnited Airlines which handled flight operations, and still functions as such, and Boeing Airplane Company which was manufacturing based in the west, this went on to become the Boeing Company that we all know today. By 1937 he had started spending most of his time breeding horses, and the new Boeing Company would not become truly successful until World War 2.

Boeing spent the remainder of his life in property development, and the breeding of thoroughbred horses. He was said to be worried about the tensions in the Pacific Northwest due to WW2. This led him to purchase a 650 acre farm east of Seattle. He called it “Aldarra”. He would go on to die September 28th, 1956 at the age of 74 (a year before the release of the release of the 707). He died of a heart attack while on his yacht. His estate was eventually sold off and turned into a golf course in 2001, but parts still remain today, including Boeing’s main home, and two smaller houses. His house in the Highlands was also listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Also a creek running near his house in the Highlands was renamed Boeing Creek after him.

Boeing Creek
The Creek named after Boeing, running near his house in the Highlands

Current Sensing: High Side vs. Low Side

Occasionally, you will be designing an electronic project, and there will be a need to to measure the current being drawn by a particular section, or  even the whole thing. When designing, prototyping, or even testing the design you can use a calibrated multimeter. In the field though, or inside a real product, how can you monitor current.

A very popular way is to use a very low value power resistor in series with the load you want to measure. As current flows through it it will induce an e.m.f (voltage) across the resistor. This resistor voltage can then be measured by an ADC in a microcontroller. The value will be linearly proportional to the current running through it. Using Ohm’s law you can deduce that the voltage across the the resistor is equal to the currentresistance. As the resistor may be slightly off, the device might need calibration.

An issue with this though, you want the minimum voltage drop possible across the resistor. This reduces power loss, and minimises the effect you will have on the load. For this reason a very small resistor needs to be used. There are plenty of resistors out there for this purpose, known as shunt or sense resistors. This tiny voltage could be as small as 0.1v, or maybe even lower, way too small for a standard ADC to pick up reliably. For this reason There is a need for an amplifier, to multiply this voltage by 20 or 50 times. This enables the swing to be measured across the range of the ADC. So if you have a 5v ADC, and the maximum voltage across the resistor will be 0.1v, the amplifier will need to have a gain of 50. There are two main categories of current sensors like this, High side and Low side.

schematics-project-1

The above image shows the basic configuration of these two types of measurement. The difference is based off on the location of the sense resistor. Low side sensing is between load and ground, with high side sensing between power and the load. It shouldn’t make much difference, the voltage across the Sense resistor will always be the same.

One reason for not using the the low side method is for the fact it is based off the ground reference. If anything between the power and the high side of the load is shorted, the current sensor wont pick it up. It is just one thing thing that you can’t then implement into your design.

Also be careful when choosing the amplifier and the resistors you intend to use. There are many amplifiers on the market designed for this specific purpose. The TSC101 is an amplifier I recently included in a project, for this exact purpose. A high side current sensor, with a precision trimmed preset gain of either 20, 50, or 100. Adding in a laser precision trimmed power resistor to this, and there is an output for a microcontroller, a very simple current sensing application. for less than £2 in your application.

Pioneers in Aviation: Donald Wills Douglas, Sr

Donald Wills Douglas, Sr was a real aviation Pioneer, from actually viewing the trials of the Wright Flyer, to creating the Douglas Cloudster, and creating the company that would eventually go up against Boeing, building some of the most famous aircraft in the world, even parts of the Saturn V! You could say he has some experience in the world of aviation.

Born April 6th 1892 in Brooklyn New York, the son of an assistant cashier at the National Park Bank. Being an early enthusiast of aviation, in autumn 1908 at the age of 16, he convinced his mother to take him to see the Fort Myer trials of the Wright Flyer. Graduating in 1909, he enrolled in the United States Naval Academy. There are stories of Douglas building model airplanes out of rubber bands and motors in his dormitory at Annapolis. Then flying them on the grounds of the academy’s armory. In 1912 he resigned from the academy to pursue his dream of a career in aeronautical engineering. Applying to jobs at Grover Loening and Glenn Curtiss, and being rejected, he ended up enrolling in MIT. He received a Bachelors of Science in Aeronautical Engineering in 1914. He was the first person to ever receive this degree because he completed the 4 year course in half that time.

Donald W Douglas
Donald W Douglas, Sr holding a prototype of the DC-8 Circa 1955

In 1915 after a year working as an assistant to a professor at MIT, Douglas joined the Connecticut Aircraft Company, and was part of the team that designed the DN-1, the Navy’s first Dirigible (also known as an airship). That august, he left to start working for the Glenn Martin Company, where he was the Chief Engineer, at the young age of 23. During his time there he designed the Martin S seaplane. Not long after that, Douglas left when Glenn Martin merged with the Wright Company. He became the Chief Civilian Aeronautical engineer, of the Aviation section of the US Army Signal Corps. Then a short time after that he moved back to the new Glenn L. Martin Company, as the Chief Engineer, designing the Martin MB-1 bomber in his time there.

Glen Martin MB-1
Glen Martin MB-1 designed by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr

In March of 1920 he gave up his job, which was paying $10,000 a year ($125,000 in today’s money) and moved to California where he had met his wife Charlotte Marguerite Ogg. There he started his own aircraft company, the Davis-Douglas Company. The Davis was from David Davis a millionaire, and his financing partner, who payed $40,000 into the company. The aim of the company was to develop an aircraft that could fly from coast to coast non-stop. This aircraft was called the Douglas Cloudster, and unfortunately failed in its challenge. Although it didn’t achieve the challenge, it was the first airplane that could carry a payload greater than it’s own weight. The failure was too much for Davis, who left the partnership, and in 1921 Douglas founded the Douglas Aircraft Company.

The Douglas Cloudster
The Douglas Cloudster made by the Davis-Douglas company

Douglas was now regarded as a great engineer and a bold entrepreneur. Even though his Cloudster had failed, his new company, the Douglas Aircraft Company was a bit hit. In 1922 he employed 68 people, but with the increase in sales due to WW2, and the increase in passenger planes, the Douglas Aircraft Company became the 4th largest company in the United States. A year and a half before Pearl Harbour, he was already writing about how it “was the hour of destiny for American aviation”. Until 1957 Douglas was President of the Company, until he passed that position over to his son when he retired, and became the Chairman. In 1967 Douglas Aircraft Company Merged with McDonnell Aircraft to form McDonnell Douglas. This company would then go on to merge with Boeing in 1997.

Donald W Douglas, Sr
Donald W Douglas, Sr standing next to a new DC-7

Donald Wills Douglas, Sr died aged 88 on February 2nd, 1981. He is widely regarded as a great engineer and businessman, with plenty of awards to his name, and is listed as 7th in Flying’s magazines 51 heroes of aviation.

The Abandoned Buran Launch Site

So on my recent search for history on the Buran Shuttle, I came across this blog post. Although I had to use the Wayback machine to see it, it shows some great shots of the place where the Buran Shuttle used to launch.

Signpost

1

The images show the way that the test site has been left to rust away. Although still obviously a launch site, the stone is breaking, and the machines obviously havn’t been used in a long time.

29

As you can see, there is still rubbish piled up, remains of old vehicles, and random scrap metal everywhere. Almost like everyone just up and left. If you have read any of my other posts on the Buran, you will know that is basically what happened. Around 1993, the USSR crumbled and the Buran shuttle programme was left behind. This is why this launch site is still like this, and why urban explorers can go out and take pictures.

On top of this, they found a few other things, including an actual Buran shuttle. Although not a working version, more of a prototype, this shuttle shows how it probably would have looked back in the day. I believe this is the version found at the Gagarin museum in the Baikonur Cosmodrome, close to the launch site found in these pictures. This one is on display to the public, and was refurbished in 2007.

34

The last thing that they found was a large machine. More specifically, the machine used to transport the Shuttle to the launch site. A colossal platform, that could move the shuttle and the solid rocket boosters needed for the flight. Unfortunately it was only ever used once in 1988, the only BUran flight ever. So it hasn’t seen much action. It was different to the USA’s Crawler-transporter because it was pulled by 5 diesel trains.

2

 

The Abandoned Buran Wind Tunnel Test

airfield-7

40km Southeast of Moscow in the back corner of Zhukovsky International Airport, there is an an interesting remnant of the space race just left to rot. These are a set of 15 pictures taken by Aleksander Markin on this Flickr album. It shows a 1/3rd scale model of the Buran Orbiter. According to Markin, the replica is made almost entirely out of wood, and was used as a wind tunnel test when developing the aerodynamics.

airfield-6 airfield-1airfield-9 airfield-8airfield-10 airfield-13 airfield-12 airfield-11airfield-14 airfield-15 airfield-2 airfield-5 airfield-4 airfield-3

When the Buran shuttle program fell into disarray, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, these prototypes and test were just left behind in the change. In the intervening years, they have been left the rot. Many shuttles and tests have been found by urban explorers, but many are still out there. In another recent post I talk about a similar Buran prototype left to rot away in an impressive warehouse. You can find that post here.

The Oak Tree

In this particular post, we are going to talk about the Oak tree, or more specifically the English Oak tree, and how we can use it. The Oak is one of those classic English trees, its a recognisable name, and most people will have things in their house that are made from Oak. How can it be used though? Well in this post we will go over some interesting uses, and what makes it special.

How to spot it

Before we can use it, we have to be able to identify it. There are some distinctive points about the Oak tree, to help you distinguish it from other trees. The Oak is a large tree, about 20m-40m tall when fully grown. It is also deciduous, so it loses it’s leaves in the autumn. When the Oak gets older it forms a broad crown on top, so no spike. It grows big sturdy branches underneath, so overall it forms a nice rounded tree, which is quite distinctive. The canopy it forms is actually really good at letting light through, so you generally find lots of plants growing underneath them; these can include primroses and bluebells, and other woodland floor plants. Young oaks have quite smooth and silvery bark, but as they get older, they get huge cracks and crevices throughout, this is a great way to differentiate from other trees.

The leaves are also pretty recognisable, they tend to be about 10cm long, with 4 or 5 big deep rounded lobes along the edges, these are smooth. Be aware though, that the amount of lobes can change between different forms of oak, in fact this is one big way of differentiating between them. The leaves generally don’t have much in the way of a stem, and grow in bunches, close together. They really grow around mid may. The Oak also flowers, the long yellow hanging catkins distribute pollen into the air. In the winter, the tree can be identified by bunches of rounded buds, with each bud having 3 or more scales.

Technically the Oak has fruits, although we know them as acorns. They are generally 2-2.5cm long, on fairly long stalks, and have a little cup that they sit in (called a cupule). While they grow  they are a green colour, but as they ripen they become a more autumnal brown. At this point they loosen from the cupule and fall to the floor. Anyone who has walked around an oak tree knows there can be many of them. These acorns are a rich food source, so they don’t hang around long. Many wild creatures come along to feast on them, like squirrels, jays and mice. For them to germinate, they need to root quickly, before they dry out.

The Oak is generally found in the northern hemisphere, in cool regions as well as tropical climates. In England they are found in southern and central woods.

Why are They Useful?

In terms of wildlife, the Oak tree is rich in biodiversity, and arguably support more life forms than any other tree native to Britain. In the autumn the falling acorns are often eaten by badgers and deer. These acorns are technically edible, but read up on ways to prepare them first, they contain tannins, which should really be removed before eating. 10,000 years ago, humans used acorns to make flour. Also during autumn, beetles and fungi take advantage of the fallen leaves. The leaves are soft, and break down easily, forming a rich environment underneath the tree. Birds are often found nesting in the Holes that the Oak’s bark provides, bats also use some of these holes, mainly due to the rich supply of insects.

The Oak tree has forever been known as a hard and durable timber, even it’s latin name Quercus Robur means strength. So it has been used for centuries as a building material, up until the 19th century, it was the primary ship building material. Unfortunately, it takes up to 150 years before an oak is ready to be used in construction. For those who want to tan leather, the bark of the Oak contains Tannin, and has been used for this purpose since roman times. This Tannic acid is also found in it’s leaves, and is poisonous to horses, and humans, damaging the kidneys.

If you wanted to plant your own acorn, it needs to be as soon as it falls to stop it drying out, if its right, a sapling should arrive the following spring.

Best Uses for an Oak Tree

For the keen bushcrafter, here is the main uses for oak trees.

  • Harvesting acorns, although these need to be processed before edible, its a great free source of food.
  • Plenty of insects to eat living in the tree, they also attract squirrels, birds, badgers and deer. So depending on how brave you are, there could be some good meals to be found.
  • Strong wood, things like digging sticks, tools, or anything that needs strength or impact resistance.
  • The inner bark of a dead branch is a good tinder.
  • The leaves do not rot very fast, and are often the last left on the forest, so could be used for shade, huts, or maybe even flooring.
  • The wood is good to burn for a fire. It burns wells, and produces a heat good enough for cooking.
  • The tannin found all over the tree is good for stopping bleeding, it does it by making the capillaries contract.

The Buran Warehouse

So browsing the internet recently, I came across a great blog by Ralph Mirebs. He classes himself as an urban explorer and photographer. In this blog post, he has some awesome photographs that he has taken in an abandoned hangar in Kazakhstan.

The Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan is currently the only place where astronauts can be sent up to the International Space Station. They get sent up via the Soyuz rocket, after the USA’s Space Shuttle was retired in 2011. Now the European space agency, and NASA both use this launch site to send up astronauts. On the subject of the space shuttle though, one hangar in the Cosmodrome holds some great pieces of history, captured by Mirebs in photographic form.

The Hangar

The hangar in question is knows as the MZK building. Designed by the Izhevsk Institute “Prikampromproekt”, the building is 132m long, and 62m high. Its fairly run down now, but in it’s day it was at the pinnacle of the Soviet space effort. The doors on the front measure 42m by 36m. Big enough to transport the rocket systems needed for the project. On top of that, these doors were perfectly sealed, so the building could be kept at a higher than normal pressure, to keep dust out. They weren’t really doors, they were just structures that just happened to move.

the massive doors

The building itself is fairly close to a heavily used launch site, so naturally it was made from a special form of steel, and was designed to withstand a rocket exploding on the nearest launch site. There are offices and laboratories on either side, four stories high. They hold testing equipment and controls. Inside the main part of the building are 3 cranes that are able to lift 400 tons each.

the 400 ton cranes

So what is this enormous secret Soviet era building holding? Well it houses 2 Buran class rockets, of only a few left in the world. The Buran programme was the Soviets reaction to the NASA’s space shuttle system. Although the Buran programme didn’t really take off (if you’ll pardon the pun!) it still holds some historical significance today. The reasoning behind the Buran system will be saved for a later post.

Looking at them, you would be forgiven for thinking that these weren’t really important. They have years of bird poo and dust covering them. Of the two ships in the hangar, one is the second flying prototype. Known as “little bird”, although never officially named. At the time that the Buran programme finished in 1993, it was about 97% ready. Unfortunately, the ship is now showing signs of wear, with the heat tiles falling off, and smashed windows. This ship started to be built in 1988, and was meant to fly in 1991 and 1992; with planned flights to the Mir space station.

33

The second ship is known only as OK-MT, simply made as an engineering mockup. It has the same look, and shape, but was never designed to fly, it was for use by engineers to test functions on the ship, so they don’t accidentally break the real thing. This one was a mockup for the other ship, known as OK-1k2, which was the only Buran calls shuttle to have the red bars on the cargo bay. This one seems in better condition, still holding onto many heat tiles, and most of it’s windows.

43

Unfortunately, most of the insides of the shuttles have been torn out, likely salvaged to be used on other projects. Some think they could have been salvaged for precious metals. Although it is a bit of a mess there is still a quality about the way it looks. A ship that was so close to being a massive part of the space age, and missing out by just a few years. Imagine if the Chief Designer had these ideas a few years before, these ships could have been the way we send astronauts into space.

47

It is sad that these pieces of equipment are just the remnants of the late Soviet Union, just left to rot. Hopefully one day they will end up in a museum, along with the other important parts of the space race era. Until then, we can only use these pictures to get a glimpse into the Buran Shuttle.

The Fallow Deer

So today I was out with a group of friends in a local estate near Plympton. The owner was there and while we were talking, he told us to just stop and listen for a second. So listen we did. Behind the bushes and the trees, we heard grunting. This grunting was the sound of Fallow deer. Apparently there are around 100 Fallow deer in the area, and for this 2 week period, its mating season. The sound we heard was a rare one, it was the sound of the buck’s grunting and thrashing around in the ferns. Why do they do this? Apparently, they try and make as much noise as possible, so they sound big and scary, so mates will be attracted to them. The louder they are, the more likely that they will find a mate. I found this quite interesting, I thought you guys might too. I wouldn’t try and go up against a Fallow deer at this time of year, you are likely to lose. Lots and lots of testosterone flowing.

As an interesting side note about Fallow deer, they are the only British deer to have palmate antlers, so they have that bit in between the horns, like frogs feet.

Plymouth Castle

So as we discussed in a previous post, Plymouth wasn’t always the power that it is today. In fact, in 1066, during the norman conquest, it was still called Sutton Pool, and had a population of 18 people. So realistically, there was no real need for any sort of fortification. The only place with a need for protection was just up the river at Plympton. Here, there was a Motte and Bailey Castle. Basically a small keep on top of a big hill, surprisingly effective at the time.

Over time though, the river changed, and the need of Sutton as a main port suddenly became of strategic importance. Around the start of the hundred years war in 1337 it was attracting unwanted attention from continental forces. It’s thought that earthwork defences were built around this time on the hoe and waterfront. There was also likely to have been similar works on the other side of the river at mount batten.

The most important part of this defence was Plymouth castle. In 1377 a murage grant was received, this is basically a tax specifically for castles, walls and other defences. The exact date that it was built is unknown, but it was first recorded in the early 1400’s. The castle was on the western side of Sutton Pool. It had 4 sides, with round towers on each corner, with curtain walls, 4 meters high. The main need for the castle was to control a chain that was raised to stop access to the harbour. If a ship got caught in this, it would be subjected to the castle’s cannons. The castle’s entrance was shielded by a barbican, which now lends its name to a part of the city.

There is no official date that the castle is said to have been built, but based around events we can give a good range. In 1340 during the Hundred Years’ War, the town was attacked by a flotilla of french raiders. Although they burned a manor house, and took some prisoners, they failed to get into the town. It was said to be due to an effective defence, this could be the castle, or it could just have been earthworks. There was another attack by the french in 1377. This lead to the murage grant to fund fortification, this may well be the money used to build the castle, but it could also have been used to fund walls or earthworks.

In 1400, it was likely that the castle was in existence, as it allegedly drove off a fleet of french ships. It was said that an english force of ships were being pursued by James of Bourbon, Count le Marche. The english forces sought refuge in Sutton harbour and scared them away. In august 1403 the castle was definitely present, and provided refuge when a Breton army landed at Cattewater and attacked and burned the town. This attack is still remembered today, by a part of the town known as Bretonside. This is the point where the invaders were stopped by the citizens marching out from the castle to attack them.

After this the castle saw very little real action. Other parts of the city were being fortified, and the castle became less important in the grand scheme. In 1549, it did play a part in the Prayer Book Rebellion; where cornishmen rebelled against the law created to have all church services in the land to be conducted in the english language. The Cornish at the time rarely spoke english, and so a rebellion started. At a point during this time, the town was besieged by rebels. The town quickly surrendered, but the castle didn’t, it held members of the crown and protestants, likely targets by the rebels. Eventually the rebellion was defeated, and the siege was lifted.

In 1588, the castle played a small part in the attack on the Spanish Armada. The English Navy took shelter from the wind and waited for the tide in Sutton harbour. The Castle gave the Navy a good defence. Unfortunately after this, in the Elizabethan era defences had moved on from simple castles. Sir Francis Drake (kinda famous in Plymouth) built an artillery fort on the Hoe. The structure, eventually known as Drake’s Fort was partially built using stone from Plymouth Castle. After this the closest it got to any action was during the civil war, when it held a parliamentary Garrison. Although, because Royalists controlled Mount Batten, Millbay on the west side of the harbour was used over Sutton Harbour so the castle wasn’t used as a military structure.

That is basically the History of Plymouth Castle. The castle itself eventually fell into disrepair, actually described as ruinous. It was used as a prison, and also a workhouse for a time. Unfortunately, in the 19th century, during the population boom, the remains were slowly robbed to be used in houses and other building projects. There is only a small part of the gatehouse still existing, and it has been turned into a part of a garden.

castle gatehouse
The remnants of the Castle Gatehouse
castle gatehouse
The remnants of the castle gatehouse, and the building development behind it
garden in the castle
The garden set into the old gatehouse

Fun fact: the four towers of Plymouth Castle are said to be remembered in the towns coat of arms, with 4 towers separated by st. Andrews cross (the patron St of Plymouth). The towers are said to be protecting him.

plymouth coat of arms
Plymouths Coat of Arms on a JaJa Postcard in 1925

The Golden Hind

A famous person in the history of Plymouth is Sir Francis Drake, i’m sure many of his expeditions will make it into this section of my blog in the future, but today we are going to talk about a famous ship that he sailed, the Golden Hind.

So in 1577, Queen Elizabeth chose Francis Drake for the most daring challenge of the day. To lead an expedition, passing through South America via the Strait of Magellan. Exploring the coasts that lay beyond it. Before setting sail, Drake met the queen face to face for the first time. She reportedly said “We would gladly be revenged on the King of Spain for divers injuries that we have received.

Why was this important? Well this basically meant the queen backed him. He had official approval to benefit himself and the queen (the queen had shares in the expedition). On top of this he was told to cause maximum damage to the Spaniards. The problem was, Drake took this too far, and acted more like a privateer. They weren’t to know at the time, but this would eventually lead to the Anglo-Spanish war.

He set sail in December 1577, with 5 small ships with a total of 164 men manning them. Reaching the coast of Brazil in early 1578. Note at this time, Drake’s flagship was named the “Pelican”, and it was small only displacing around 100 tons. Mid way through the journey, Drake had the inspiration to rename the ship the “Golden Hind”. Named after his patron (the man who payed for most of it) Sir Christopher Hatton; who was at the time, one of the queens favourites. His crest was a Golden ‘hind’, another word for a female deer.

The date that made the Golden Hind a big name was the 1st of March 1579, when they were in the Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Ecuador. The ship challenged and captured a Spanish galleon. Named Nuestra Señora de la Concepción the galleon had the largest treasure ever captured up to that date, at over 360,000 pesos. The six tons of treasure took 6 days to move between ships.

Why is Plymouth important in this story? well it is the first harbour that the ship sailed into when it got home, on the 26th september 1580, a famous day in Plymouths history. Note that of the 80 people the ship left with, only 56 were left aboard.

Even though Drake basically acted like a pirate, the Queen herself went aboard the Golden hind when it sailed to Depthord in the Thames Estuary. There Drake got bestowed with a knighthood, and went into the history books. What did the queen get, around £160,000. This was reportedly enough to “pay off her entire foreign debt and still have £40,000 left to reinvest. The return to all the investors came to £47 for every £1 invested, or 4700%, a good return in anyone’s book.

What happened to the Golden hind in the end? well it basically stayed in Deptford. Maintained for public display, incidentally the first ship to be kept and displayed in this manner because of the historical significance. It remained there for around 100 years, and eventually rotted away and was finally broken up. It’s still not gone or forgotten though, parts were reportedly made into a table in Middle Temple Hall in london, and a chair in Buckland Abbey in devon, also the Pelican Inn in Gloucester claims to be made with some timbers from the ship.