The Final Block 4 Changes the Florida Sky

Smoke left over by CRS-15
The smoke stream left over by CRS-15 after the launch from Cape Canaveral, FL. Credit: Marcus Cote.

On the 29th of June 2018, at 09:42 UTC the last Block 4 type Falcon 9 rocket launched a cargo mission to the International space station. Launching from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Base, the Falcon 9 was carrying CRS-15, a resupply for the International Space Station (ISS). This is the 15th mission of up to 20 CRS missions that have been contracted with NASA to resupply the ISS. Initially planned for April 2018, it was eventually pushed to the 29th of June. Previous resupply missions have been conducted by SpaceX and Orbital ATK.

Long Exposure CRS-15
A great long exposure image of the CRS-15 launch. Plenty of other versions of these out there, but this one has the great smoke shapes at the end. Credit: Marcus Cote.

B1045 (the first stage booster) was the seventh and final “Block 4” Falcon 9 v1.2 first stage manufactured by SpaceX. For this reason it is very likely that this was the final Block 4 first stage orbital vehicle. SpaceX has since developed the Block 5 the debuted in May. Together the seven Block 4 Falcon 9’s boosted twelve missions, with most being expended on the second flight. This stage was purposely expended at the end of the mission, the ninth purposeful expenditure in the last twelve launches. This stage was not equipped with landing legs or titanium steering grid fins. It was the 14th flight of a previously flown Falcon 9 first stage, and the eighth to be expended on the second flight.

CRS-15 by Spacex
The night launch of the CRS-15 mission to resupply the ISS with a Dragon capsule. Credit: SpaceX

B1045.2 had previously boosted NASA’s TESS towards orbit on April 18th 2018, I wrote about that launch here. With it returning to the autonomous drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You” downrange. For this mission it launched the two stage rocket and powered it for 2 minutes and 51 seconds. With a Dragon 11.2 refurbished spacecraft that was previously used on CRS-9 in July 2016 the main payload for the rocket. The first put the capsule and the second stage into a 227 x 387 km x 51.64 degree orbit. The block 5 second stage burned for about 8 minutes and 31 seconds after liftoff, inserting Dragon into the required orbit. The burn was 36 seconds shorter than previous Block 4 launches as this rocket had higher thrust. Dragon rendezvoused with the ISS on the 2nd of July after an extended coast.

CRS-15 smoke
The great view of the remanence of the CRS-15 launch, taken from the Vehicle Assembly Building at Cape Canaveral. Credit: Marcus Cote.

This launch left a particularly cool looking smoke cloud afterwards. With many Twitter users posting images of the smoke remnants hundreds of miles away. The night launch also allowed for some great photos by many of the keen photographers that are at every launch, capturing many of the images in this post. To see more of the awesome rocket launches, I have posted about many, and will continue to do so.

CRS-15 launch
The launch of the CRS-15 mission. You can see the flames from the 9 Merlin-1D engines. Credit: SpaceX

To find similar photos, and to buy reasonably priced prints of some of the above visit www.marcuscotephotography.com

Charon: The Man Who Gave His Wife a Moon

Charon Enhanced
An enhanced colour version of Charon taken by New horizons space probe. It is enhanced to show the differences in surface composition. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute.

On June 22nd, 1978 James Christy was trying to refine the orbit of Pluto when he noticed something odd about the images. Going straight to Robert Harrington, his supervisor at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, together they concluded that they had found what we now know as Pluto’s largest moon Charon. Discovered just 6 miles away from where pluto itself was found (Lowell Observatory), discovering Charon began a journey from Pluto being a dot on a telescope to its own planetary system. With some amazing images coming from a probe NASA sent there, we have a glimpse of the edge of our solar system. The best part of the story, Charon is named after Christy’s wife.

40 years after christy
40 years on, Christy shows the images he used to discover Charon, and now one of the New Horizons images is his PC wallpaper. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute/Art Howard/GHSPi

In 1930, Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto, and although famous in itself, there was limited study on this dot in the far reaches of the solar system. So on the fateful day James Christy asked his supervisor Bob Harrington for something to do, Harrington pulled some telescope plates of Pluto from the Naval Observatory at Flagstaff to look over. Christy looked over them for some time under a microscope and noticed some inconsistencies with the images, with the asymmetry being different between them. In simple terms he noticed a bump on the side of Pluto that seemed to move over time. Although at first he thought he might be seeing things, when he took it to Harrington he agreed with the findings.

Jim Christy points
Jim Christy pointing to the photographic plate that he used to discover that Pluto has a moon. Credit: U.S. Naval Observatory

When  looking at other images of Pluto, the bump was constantly moving from one side to the other. Further examination showed the bump moved around Pluto at the same own rotational period, 6.39 days. There were two potential theories as to what it was, either Pluto had a mountain thousands of miles high (meaning Pluto was not very spherical) or it has a satellite in synchronous orbit. In the 48 years since Pluto’s discovery at Lovell Observatory in 1930, there had never been any evidence spotted that Pluto had a moon. The next steps included scouring the archives for more cases of an elongated looking Pluto.

The Charon images
The discovery at the US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff was seen as a time varying bulge on the image of Pluto. This is a negative version of the one Christy looked at. Credit: US Naval Observatory.

Christy measured the angle from the north where the strange elongation was. At the same time Robert Harrington calculated what the answer would be if the elongation was from a satellite. They then compared their results, and they were the same. To be sure they waited for the Observatories 61 inch telescope to make a final confirmation on the matter. On the 2nd of July 1978 new images showed an elongation exactly where they expected it to be. Five days later they announced the discovery to the world. Pluto’s first satellite had been discovered.

40 years difference
The difference of 40 years, top left is one of the images Christy used to discover Cahron, the big image is from New Horizons flyby. Credit: U.S. Naval Observatory; NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

By astronomical tradition, the discoverer of an object gets the first chance to suggest a name for the object. The name does not have to be recognised by the International Astronomers Union. Christy wanted to name the moon after his wife, Charlene. To make it sound more scientific he took his nickname for her “Char” and added an “on”. The “on” was from his interest in atoms, and words like proton and neutron. He suggested the name on the June 24th, 1978. Colleagues at the observatory prefered the name Persephone, but Christy noticed that Charon was actually a real Greek mythological figure. Charon is the ferryman of the dead, associated with the god Hades. Creepily the Romans identified Hades with their god Pluto. The name was eventually adopted on January the 3rd 1986.

The greek Charon
The name Charon was partially adopted because it is the name of the ferrymen of the dead in greek mythology. this is a nineteenth century painting by Alexander Litovchenko

Charon is the largest moon of Pluto, and is about the size of Texas. It also makes Charon the largest moon relative to its parent planet at about 12% of the size. So big in fact that Charon and Pluto are seen as a double planet or binary planets. They have a common centre of gravity that is outside of either of them. It is believed that it was formed by some sort of giant impact, much like the Earth and the Moon. The sheer size and proximity to Pluto meant it was a good choice for a scientific mission to take a closer look at the system. The mission, New Horizons was launched in 2006, with a  primary mission to performa flyby study of the Pluto system.

New Horizons Artist
An artistic impression of what New Horizons looked like when it passed Pluto and Charon. Credit: NASA Goddard Media Studios.

Passing about 18,000 miles (29,000 km) away from Charon on the 24th of July 2015, New Horizons gave the world a brand new stunning view of the moon from up close. At its closest point it was 7,800 miles (12,500 km) from Pluto, mapping both the planet and the moon using its long range imaging cameras. It mapped them to a resolution of 25 mi (40 km). The way they entered the system and the speed they were going allowed them to map all sides of both bodies. They took multiple images with the close range camera to find any surface changes. They also characterised the atmosphere, using the on board ALICE experiment.

Best Charon Images
A mosaic of the best images taken by New Horizons of Charon, from a few different angles. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

The science gained by New Horizons has given astronomers a new look into the outer reaches of the solar system, and it is still planning to take more images of comets and asteroids it comes into contact with in 2019. The first close up images of Charon were revealed  to the world at the John Hopkins Applied Physics Lab in Maryland to a packet auditorium. Jim Christy, the discoverer of Charon and his wife who it was named after were there at the unveiling, were recognized by the crowd. He said “When you go from this little blur in which you don’t actually see anything, to the enormous detail New Horizons sent back,” Christy said, “it’s incredible.” That amount of change in just 40 years.

The Secret of Salton Sea Naval Base

Salton Sea Base Sign
Welcoming visitors to Salton Sea Base while it was run by the Sandia Corporation.

Salton Sea Naval Base is not known as one of the famous military test sites in the United states. Although it isn’t as revered as places like White Sands or Edwards AFB it is still the location of some of the most important testing during the second world war. It aided in the development of the Fat Man, the bomb that eventually ended the second world war by destroying Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. With many aerodynamic testing, and target practice for the bombers, at one point it was one of the most secret places in the United States, now it is basically a desert, with broken buildings, occasionally being found by urban explorers.

Building from the pier
A building found 100m up from the pier, showing signs of wear. Found by urban explorers recently. Credit: Saltonseawalk.

Salton Sea is a shallow saline lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault. The U.S. Navy inspected the site in January of 1940, and commissioned it as the Salton Sea Naval Auxiliary Air Station in October 1942. The base was designed as a training base for seaplanes, and was located just to the south east of Salton city. Although it only initially took claim of the northern end of the Lake, it eventually controlled part of the southern end too. Technically speaking it is a Naval Station and not a Navy Base, but most references refer to it as a Test Base.

Overhead view of Salton Sea in 1947
An overhead view of Salton Sea base in 1947.
View of Salton Sea base
Aerial view of Salton Sea boat docks, showing how remote the place is. Credit: Center for Land Use Interpretation.

Throughout the 1940’s it functioned as an active military weapons test site. Lt. Col. Paul Tibbets led the 393rd Heavy Bombardment Squadron during 1944 and 1945 through a series of classified B-29 practice flights from Wendover, Utah to the Salton Sea, where they would drop dummy atomic bombs onto a floating white raft. This was used as the testing site for the fateful atomic weapons attacks that ended the second world war for Japan. It is said that Tibbets dropped the first atomic bomb himself on Hiroshima in a plane named after his mum, Enola Gay. The prototypes were tested at Salton Sea.

instrument lab 1951
Image of the instrument lab of the Salton Sea Navy Base taken in 1951.

The crews made hundreds of practice runs over the Mojave and Salton Sea. The bombs they used were full size mock-ups, sometimes filled with concrete, other times containing everything except the nuclear part. This often meant being filled with explosives. During one Salton Sea run, an engineer dropped one of the Fat Man mock ups too soon. It narrowly missed the town of Calipatria. The bomb buried itself 3m into the ground, but luckily didn’t explode. Bulldozers rushed to the scene to erase the evidence.

UXO sign at Salton Sea
A sign warning of Unexploded Ordnance around the Salton Sea base area, with all the testing over the years it is understandable. Credit: Saltonseawalk.
Area Closed
A sign telling all visitors that the area is closed to all users.The guys who took the pictures ignored this warning though. Credit Saltonseawalk.

During the 1950’s the base was used by Sandia National Labs as a range for missile testing, with over 1,100 missile tests being conducted there. Sandia was the principal contractor for the Atomic Energy Commission after the war, and they renamed the site Salton Sea Test Base in 1946. They used the site to test weapons, space capsule parachute drops, drone airplane tests, and Nike missile launches. 150 different tests were conducted annually over a ten year period some using depleted uranium. Sandia ended operations in 1961 when they moved to a new remote site. The main reason for moving was a fight with rising waters of the lake.

Building A1
Located a few hundred meters into the base, Building A1 is one of the more interesting surviving buildings, you can see that it has not been looked after. Credit: Saltonseawalk.
Building A1
The building marked A1, one of the only buildings still standing. On top an Alaska Pedestal, used to hold tracking equipment for missiles. Credit: Saltonseawalk.

During the 1960’s it was mainly abandoned, and in the 1970’s it was occasionally used for live munitions practice.  Most buildings suffered substantial damage. The site was listed as inactive in 1986, but the facility found renewed life as a site for Gulf War training maneuvers during the 1990’s. As most of the original buildings were destroyed, the base was decommissioned and turned over the the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in the mid-1990’s. The Site was used during the early 2000’s as a research site for salinity control. There are no plaques or monuments to the achievements of Salton Sea, and the parts it played in winning the second world war, and very little online about it.

Pier at Salton Sea
A great picture of what used to be the pier at Salton Sea base. Credit: Saltonseawalk.

Thank You for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space or electronics, or follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.


Taking a Selfie on Mars

Curiosity in a dust storm
An image shared by Seán Doran on Sunday of the Mars Curiosity in the middle of a dust storm reported to cover an area the size of the US and Russia Combined. CredIt: NASA/JPL/Seán Doran.

Curiosity is a famous, car sized rover currently exploring Gale Crater on Mars. Famous because it has an impressive track record. Landing on Mars in August 2012, the rover was designed to last 687 days/668 sols (martian days) but was extended to indefinitely in December 2012. Although at the time of writing it is trying to wait out a dust storm that has forced Opportunity into a deep sleep, it is still going strong to this day, and has managed to even take a selfie while waiting for it all to blow over. That is over 2100 earth days, still functioning and completing chemical analysis on soil from 560 million km (350 million mi) away!

Mars Curiosity Rover MAHLI
The Mars Hand Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) on NASA’s Curiosity Rover, taken by Curiosities Mast Camera on the 32nd martian day. Credit: NASA/JPL.
Curiosity first space selfie
The first selfie that Curiosity took of itself with its MAHLI camera with it’s dust cover closed. Taken September 7th, 2012. Credit: JPL/NASA.

Even though this impressive piece of engineering has been collecting samples and completing scientific experiments for over 5 years, the rover still has time to take the occasional selfie. It has a 2.1m robotic arm, and a sophisticated camera (MHLI) mounted on the end of it. The obvious thing you will notice about the images is that you can’t see the arm taking the image. To many of the NASA sceptics and flat earthers this is conclusive proof that the rover is in a film studio somewhere in California rather than on our nearest neighbour planet. At first glance you can understand the problem, where is the arm? The first clue is that the arm isn’t in the picture at all, and when you see the images taken of it here on Earth you can see it is a very prominent feature.

Mars Rover selfie October 2012
The Curiosity Rover taking a selfie at “Rocksnest” a sand patch on the surface of Aeolis Palus, between Peace Vallis and Aeolis Mons (“Mount Sharp”) Taken in October 2012, not long after landing. Credit: NASA/JPL.

The simple answer was explained by NASA/JPL when these questions came up after the first self shot. As the Curiosity camera has a limited view, it cannot get the entire rover into one shot, and even when it does, it looks slightly odd depending on the angle. This is also a problem that they have when taking images of the martian landscape. To get round it, the camera takes many images at differing angles. The images can then be stitched together in photoshop by engineers. They did something similar when putting together images of the moon taken by satellites. As the following image posted by NASA shows, the arm has to move during the changes in camera location, often moving out of frame. Even when the arm is slightly in an image they tend to cover it with another image, so it doesn’t confuse the people looking at it. The selfie would look odd if it had more than one arm showing.

Even though they take care to put together the images in a way that dont look like many stitched together there are still sometimes some inconsistencies. Notice that in the next image the shadow of the arm is still in the image, and there is a slight ghost of the arm below the rover. As you can see below this shot too 72 images stitched together to be made. 20 of those images, over 2 tiers just make up the horizon. Selfies are generally taken at each new drill site, as part of an overall effort to document the trip and of that site. The entire picture taking sequence has now been automated, and tested rigorously on the second identical rover that is here on Earth. If the rover were to take the multiple pictures from individual commands the process would be too long and drawn out.

Mars Rover Selfie August 2015
The Mars rover from a different lower angle. Taken at “Buckskin” on Aeolis Mons on
Mars. Taken on Aug. 5, 2015, during the 1,065th Martian day. Credit: NASA/JPL.
Mars rover selfie component images
The 72 images taken by the rover over the period of an hour. Credit: NASA/JPL/MSSS/Emily Lakdawalla.

There are at least 7 of these selfies taken over the years, all from a very similar angle. The big thing to notice is the difference in the rover itself. Over time it slowly gets covered in more and more dust, starting to blend in with the martian soil behind it. The saddest part to see is the slow deterioration of the wheels. There are small holes developing and getting bigger in the metalwork on the wheels, and in some images they can seem prominent. Either way, these selfies show a slight human side to the robot. There are many people throughout Twitter that anthropomorphize Curiosity and its predecessors, wishing them well on their journey.

Mars Rover selfie September 2016
A slightly newer selfie taken at “MurrayB” a named rock on
Aeolis Mons in Gale Crater. An awesome image taken in September 2016. Credit: NASA/JPL.

Thank You for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space or electronics, or follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.


Orbital ATK resupply the ISS

Orbital ATK launch of a Antares 230 Rocket
Orbital ATK launch a cargo resupply mission to the ISS on an Antares Rocket from Wallops. Credit: Orbital ATK Flickr.

On May 21st 2018, Orbital ATK’s Antares launch vehicle orbited the companies Cygnus OA-9 cargo hauling spacecraft. Launched from the little known NASA Wallops Island in Virginia, it took off from pad 0A at 08:44 UTC. OA-9 took 3,250 kg of cargo to the international space station, along with several cubesats that with deployer hardware added roughly 120 kg. This launch was in honour of J.R.Thompson, former Orbital Science CEO, who passed away in 2017.

Antares 230 waitjng
Antares 230 rocket waiting to launch from NASA Wallops Island. Credit: Space Launch Schedule

It was the third flight of the Antares 230 variant, a redesigned vehicle powered by two Energomash RD-181 engines instead of the AJ-26 engines that powered the first five Antares flights. The change was made after one of the AJ-26 turbopumps failed and triggered a destructive explosion above the pad in 2004. Cygnus OA-9 was the sixth enhanced Cygnus with a stretched cargo module, but only the third to fly on Antares, Atlas 5 launched the other three.#

ISS Cargo waiting
The OA-9 Cygnus cargo waiting to me mated with the rest of the rocket at Orbital ATK. Credit: Orbital ATK Flickr.

According to Orbital ATK, Cygnus  OA-9 weighed 6,173 kg at launch, matching OA-8 payload for heaviest launched by an Antares rocket. The RD-181 engines produce a total of 392 tonnes of thrust at liftoff, that powers the 293 tonne rocket into the sky. Built in Ukraine (former Soviet design), the first stage burned for 211 seconds. After first stage shutdown it seperated and coasted “up hill” for 37 seconds before the Orbital ATK Castor 30XL second stage motor ignited to produce 51 tonnes of thrust for 160 seconds. The payload fairing separated 12 seconds before second stage ignition. Cygnus separated into a 198 x 317 km x 51.63 deg orbit about 9 min 6 sec after liftoff.

OA-9 loading cargo
Orbital ATK loading cargo into the Cygnus OA-9 second stage. Credit: Orbital ATK Flickr.

How the Type G Gate Worked

apollo 3 input NOR gate
An image of the silicon die inside the Type G 3 input NOR gate used to power the Apollo Guidance computer.

Previously I went through the three input NOR gate that ran the Apollo Guidance Computer and how the circuit works. Previous to that I also told the story of how this chip partially funded Silicon Valley as we know it today. This post builds on that and goes through how the silicon works, and the simplicity of the circuit. Quite a famous image of the chip, fairly detailed image of the silicon inside the device spurred on this post, and taught me lots about silicon that I want to pass on.

apollo 3 input NOR gate schem annotated
The schematic of the 3 input NOR gate. From the schematic of the Apollo Guidance Computer. Annotated with my own designators for reference.

The above schematic of the 3 input NOR gate is also shown in previous posts. It is from the NASA Apollo Guidance Computer schematic, but I have annotated it so that I can reference to specific parts. It is a handy schematic considering it was right at the start of the development of semiconductors. The first image in the post is the best image of the silicon, but is not very big. The biggest image I can find is not quite as sharp, but is much better to annotate, it is the same chip. The first annotation shows the pinout of the device, and how those pins actually connect to the pins.

apollo 3 input NOR pin out
The silicon of the 3 input NOR gate with annotations to show which pin is connected. The pin numbers are from the schematic.
Showing how pins are connected
An image showing how the pins coming off of the silicon are connected into pins of the flat pack.

The noted parts of the above images are pins 5 and 10, and are the starting points to deciphering the layout. If you look at pin 5 and 10 on the schematic, they correspond to GND and power respectively. They are the only pins that are shared between both NOR gates. Apart from that the two sides look remarkably similar, and are basically a mirrored version. To figure which is ground and which is power, the resistors need to be taken into account.

apollo 3 input NOR gate resistors
The resistors on the silicon of the device. Shown above as brown lines they are P doped silicon that act like a resistor.

The above image shows the resistors found on the device. They tend to just be a thin section of P doped silicon, and above connect two sections of aluminum to form a resistor. It is also noted that there is big section of brown surrounding the whole circuit. Although it functions like a resistor and is made in the same way, it is puterly for ESD purposes, protecting the circuit. This big ring also is a big hint that it is connected to ground (pin 5). the second hint is that GND has no resistors attached to it on the schematic, but power has two. They are R1 and R2, connecting to pin 9 and 1 respectively, and are pull up resistors. Pin R3 to R8 are simply the base resistors for the transistors. They are all roughly the same size, and are there are 6 of them. The transistors are also fairly obvious in the centre of the silicon.

apollo NOR gate transistors
The centre silicon from the Apollo 3 input NOR gate. The transistors have been shown, and the collector, base and emitter also shown,

The above image is showing the heart of the device. the 6 transistors that make it resistor-transistor logic. As you can see in the above image, all the collectors are connected together, connected to pins 1 and 9. If you look closely, the base and emitter of each transistor sit inside a brown section like the resistors. This is P doped silicon and forms the base-emitter junction. This allows the base and emitter to sit anywhere within that P doped silicon detection to work. This means that the transistors do not conform to the standard Collector-base-emitter topology. All of the emitters are also connected together via the aluminium placed on the top, but the P doped sections of each device are seperate. As all the transistors of each device have common emitters, it doesn’t matter that they are all connected together, by design, only one of the transistors needs to be on for it to function.

Ken Shirriff transistor side view
A great image showing how the transistor works from a side view by Ken Shirriff.

The above image found on Ken Shirriff’s blog shows how the transistor works with the emitter and base in the P doped silicon. I may do some more posts about it, but his blog is a great place to find more information on silicon reverse engineering.

Electronics world 1963
A cutout from electronics world in 1963 showing the new process of planar technology. This method was used to make the NOR gate.

The above image is an interesting one I found while researching this chip. A section in electronics world 1963 showing how micrologic is made. The type G chip was part of the second batch of micrologic circuits. This section was useful to see how silicon was actually manufactured, and in some ways, still is today.

McMoon: How the Earliest Images of the Moon Were so Much Better than we Realised

Earthrise
An Earthrise over the moon’s horizon, taken by Lunar Orbiter 1 on August 24th 1966. Credit NASA/LOIRP.

Fifty years ago, 5 unmanned lunar orbiters circled the moon, taking extremely high resolution photos of the surface. They were trying to find the perfect landing site for the Apollo missions. They would be good enough to blow up to 40 x 54ft images that the astronauts would walk across looking for the great spot. After their use, the images were locked away from the public until after the bulk of the moon landings, as at the time they would have revealed the superior technology of the USA’s spy satellite cameras, which the orbiters cameras were designed from. The main worry was the USSR gaining valuable information about landing sites that the US wanted to use. In 1971 many of the images were released, but nowhere near to their potential quality, and mainly to an academic audience as public interest in the moon had waned. Up until 2008 most of the reported images from the project were the 1966 versions that were grainy and lower quality.

Earthrise difference
Comparison of the Earthrise image shown to the public in 1966 on top, and the restored image directly from the tape on the bottom. The bottom image was released in 2008, 42 years after it was taken. Credit: NASA/LOIRP.

These spacecraft were Lunar Orbiter I to V, and they were sent by NASA during 1966 and 67. In the late 1960’s, after the Apollo era, the data that came back on analog tapes was placed in storage in Maryland. In the mid 1980’s they were transferred to JPL, under the care of Nancy Evans, co-founder of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The tapes were moved around for many years, until Nancy found Dennis Wingo and Keith Cowing. They decided they needed to be digitised for future generations, and brought them to NASA Ames Research Centre. They set up shop in an abandoned McDonalds, offered to them as free space. They christened the place McMoon. The aim was to digitise these tapes before the technology used to read them disappeared, or the tapes destroyed.

The Mcdonalds
The McDonalds nicknamed McMoon, with the trademark skull and crossbones flag denoting the “hacker” methodology. Credit: MIT Technology Review.

The Lunar Orbiters never returned to Earth with the imagery. Instead, the Orbiter developed the 70mm film (yes film) and then raster scanned the negatives with a 5 micron spot (200 lines/mm resolution) and beamed the data back to Earth using lossless analog compression, which was yet to actually be patented by anyone. Three ground stations on earth, one of which was in Madrid, another in Australia and the other in California recieved the signals and recorded them. The transmissions were recorded on to magnetic tape. The tapes needed Ampex FR-900 drives to read them, a refrigerator sized device that cost $300,000 to buy new in the 1960’s.

FR-900
The FR-900 that was used to restore the old images. A mix of old and new equipment to get the images to modern PC’s. Credit: MIT Technology Review.
FR-900 signed
The back of the first FR-900 has been signed by the people who brought the project to life, including Nancy Evans. Credit: MIT Technology Review.

The tape drive that they found first had to be restored, beginning with a wash in the former restaurants sink. The machine needed a custom built demodulator to extract the image, an analog to digital converter, and a monitor connection to view what was happening. As the labelling system of the tapes had been forgotten, and documentation was not readily available, they had to hand decode the coordinates on the tapes. They also had a big collection from parts of other FR-900’s and similar designs. The spare parts were constantly needed to keep the recorder going, there was good reason that the format didn’t continue for long.

moon image reels
These are just some of the reels of moon images. They use this machine to hand inspect the reels, mainly to figure out the coordinate labelling system. Credit: MIT Technology Review.

In order to read the tapes, the heads of the FR-900 apply a magnetic field to the tape inducing a current through it. The current can be measured and run through the demodulator. This pulls out the image signal, that is then run through an analog to digital converter. The data is then processed on a computer using the custom system they set up. They made custom software that interfaced with Photoshop to link the relevant parts of the image together. The orbiters sent out each image in multiple transmissions, with each strip (one tin) making up part of the image. the software manages to link up the images nearly seamlessly at the full potential resolution. The best of the images can show the lunar surface at a resolution less than 1m, much better than any other orbiter that has been there.

tapes tapes tapes
The image shows the sheer amount of tapes that the few images are stored on. Inside McMoon you can also see a sleeping bag some poor guy had to stay in. Credit: thelivingmoon.com.

They were huge files, even by today’s standards. One of the later images can be as big as 2GB on a modern PC, with photos on top resolution DSLRs only being in the region of 60MB you can see how big these images are. One engineer said you could blow the images up to the size of a billboard without losing any quality. When the initial NASA engineers printed off these images, they had to hang them in a church because they were so big. The below images show some idea of the scale of these images. Each individual image when printed out was 1.58m by 0.4m.

NASA printing
This image shows the large thin strip images being laid out on the floor of a large room so the engineers could look for good landing spots. Credit: NASA.
NASA Engineer
The image shows a NASA technician with a ream of photograph printouts used to assemble the overall image. Credit: NASA.

Orbiter IV was there to produce a single big image of the front side of the moon. In pictures taken between May 11-25, 1967 the Orbiter took a number of images that span the area from the north pole to the south pole and from the eastern limb to the western limb. The complete mosaic of an image stretched 40 by 45 ft. The engineers laid it out on the floor and all the observers including the astronauts had to crawl over it and take off their shoes. The images were so good, even at this size that some astronomers used magnifying glasses. This giant image was the primary source to select the sites for Orbiter V  to photograph in a higher resolution. The images taken by Orbiter V decided the exact locations for Apollo 11 to land.

Tsiolkovskiy Crater
The very prominent feature in this image is the Tsiolkovskiy Crater on the far side of the moon. Taken by Orbiter 3 on 19 February 1967. Credit: NASA/LOIRP.

Since 2007 the Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project has brought back 2000 images from 1500 analog tapes. The first ever picture of an earthrise. As Keith Cowing said “an image taken a quarter of a fucking million miles away in 1966. The Beatles were warming up to play Shea Stadium at the moment it was being taken.” To find more of those images go to their website, but I warn you those images are huge.

Thank You for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space or electronics, or follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.


The First Block 5 Launches Bangladesh’s First Satellite

F9-55 launches
An awesome image of the first Block 5 Falcon 9 taking off from LC 39A at KSC. Credit: SpaceX Flickr.

On the 11th of May 2018, at 20:14 UTC the first ever block 5 Falcon 9 rocket launched Bangabandhu 1 into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Launched from Launch Complex 39A at Cape Canaveral Air Force Base, the F9-55 (launch designation) was delayed after an automatic abort on May 10th, 1 minute before liftoff. Bangabandhu 1, a Thales Alenia Space Spacebus 4000B2 series satellite is Bangladesh’s first geostationary communications satellite.

The block 5 has been long awaited by SpaceX fans, with many images in the news, and plenty of hints on Twitter. SpaceX has been incrementally improving and upgrading the Falcon 9 v1.2 booster design since it’s first launch in December 2015. Designed to be much easier to refurbish, with potentially 10 reuses in each booster. Previous block designs have only been able to be reused once before being decommissioned.

F9-55 on the pad
The F9-55 on the launchpad ready to fire a satellite into GTO more efficiently that previous versions. Credit: @marcuscotephoto on twitter.

The Block 5 incorporates higher thrust Merlin 1D engines that have turboprop modifications that were requested by NASA. These modifications are to accommodate future potential crew launches. Another big change was mentioned in the livestream, where the pressurisation method in the second stage has been improved. After the AMOS 6 Falcon 9 explosion, the new version allows for faster, later and denser, chilled kerosene fuel loading. It also has new landing legs that can be retracted without being removed like previous Falcon 9’s. There are other changes, but they have been featured in previous designs.

F9-55 launch
The Falcon 9 takes off with Bangladesh’s first geostationary communications satellite on board. Credit: @marcuscotephoto on Twitter

The first stage had designation B1046. It burned for 2 minutes and 31 seconds, before separating ro perform reentry burns. It opened its new landing legs and landed on the autonomous drone ship Of Course I Still Love You, 630km downrange in the ocean. The second stage burned for 5 minutes and 43 seconds to reach parking orbit at T+8 minutes and 19 seconds. It then restarted ar T+27 minutes and 38 seconds for a 59 second long second burn that accelerated the craft to GTO.

F9-55 awesome shot
The Falcon 9 after an aborted launch the day before, with a new paint scheme to denote the block 5. Credit: SpaceX Flickr.

In the 31 attempts, 25 Falcon 9/Falcon Heavy booster have been successfully recovered. Four of the landings have been on “Just Read The Instructions” off the coast of California. 10 on land at Cape Canaveral from LZ1 with another one on  LZ2. 10 have landed on the autonomous drone ship, Of Course I Still Love You off the Florida coast. Nineteen individual first stages have been recovered, eleven have flown twice, with five of those ether expended or lost during their second flights. All the recovered stages have been v1.2 Falcon 9’s.

F9-55 power
The first look at the extra thrust on the Falcon 9 Merlin 1D engines in the new Block 5. Credit: SpaceX Flickr.

To find similar photos, and to buy reasonably priced prints of some of the above visit www.marcuscotephotography.com

The Manned Orbiting Laboratory

NASA Special Agent Dan Oakland holds up a long-lost spacesuit uncovered at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida. Credit NASA.

In early 2005, two security officers at Cape Canaveral Air Force Base in Florida were doing a check of a facility known as the Launch Complex 5/6 museum. NASA Special Agent Dann E. Oakland and Security Manager Henry Butler, of the company that oversees the museum, Delaware North Parks and Resorts, discovered a locked room. The problem was they had no key, and nobody else did! Luckily, being security officers they found a master key and gained entry. By the looks of things the room hadn’t been accessed in  many years, at least not by people, the rodents had made themselves at home. With no power the officers explored with torches and found some interesting stuff.

This is Launch Complex 5/6 blockhouse, now a museum at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida, where long-lost space suits were found. Credit: NASA.

They found retired spacesuits designed for Americans in the 1960’s that were training to be space spies. Initially they assumed the spacesuits were training suits from the end of Gemini or the beginning of Apollo space programs. When inspected by their manufacturer, the Hamilton Standard Corporation, they determined they were actually MH-7 training suits. Kept in surprisingly good condition, the suits were made for a short lived cold war-era military program to put a manned space station in orbit.

This locker reveals a long-lost spacesuit uncovered at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida. Credit: NASA

In 1964 the Manned Orbiting Laboratory program was an Air Force initiative to send a Air Force astronauts to a space station in a Gemini capsule, as they had plenty of experience with it. While up there they would take part in surveillance and reconnaissance efforts. After spending a few weeks in orbit, the crew would simply un dock and return to Earth. A test launch from Complex 40 on Nov. 30, 1966, of a MOL was conducted with an unmanned Gemini capsule. The MOL was constructed from tankage of a Titan II rocket. The program was abandoned by the Air Force in 1969 but not before they made a great deal of technological developments. when the USAF abandoned the MOL program, they transferred all equipment and their astronaut corps to NASA.

A 1960 conceptual drawing of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Credit: NASA

There were two spacesuits found, one identified as 007 and another 008. The spacesuit with identifying number 008 had the name “LAWYER” on the left sleeve. The suit was traced to Lt. Col. Richard E. Lawyer, a member of the first group recruited to be MOL astronauts in 1965. Three groups of military officers trained to be MOL astronauts, when the program was cancelled seven of the younger ones were transferred to NASA’s human space flight program, and went on to have standout careers. Notable mentions are Robert Crippen, pilot of the first Space Shuttle mission, and Richard H. “Dick” Truly, who later became a NASA Administrator. All MOL astronauts who were under age 35 and survived eventually flew in NASA programs, either on board Skylab or the space shuttle.

Atlas V Launches InSight

Atlas V on the pad
The Atlas V on the launch pad at vandenberg AFB in California, Credit: ULA flickr.

At 11:05 UTC on May 5th 2018 the forth Atlas launch of the year launched the long awaited InSight mission on a course for mars. Launching from Vandenberg Air Force Base the AV-078 (the launch designation) was an Atlas V in 401 configuration. It was the first interplanetary launch from the west coast of the United States. Liftoff of the Atlas V with a 4m payload fairing was from Space Launch Complex 3 East.

Sam Suns first tweet
An awesome photo of the launch that blew up on twitter, taken from the sky. Credit @BirdsNSpace on Twitter.

The rocket had one main payload, the InSight Mission and two CubeSats. InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a robotic lander designed to study the interior of the planet Mars.  I weighed 694 kg at launch, including a 425 kg fueled lander. The lander carries a probe that will be hammered 15m into the Mars surface, a seismometer, a magnetometer (first expected to land on the surface of Mars), a laser reflector, along with other instruments. The lander also has a robotic arm to move payloads around, but there will be another post in the future discussing the instruments in more detail. The two CubeSats on board are known as MarCO-A and MarCO-B, each weighing about 13.5 kg. They will fly by Mars while conducting a data relay experiment with InSight.

Insight Fairing
The 4m payload fairing on top of the Atlas V containing the InSight payload. Credit: ULA Flickr.

The design of InSight was developed from the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander. The previous lander was launched on Delta 2 rockets compared to the Atlas V, both built and launched by the United Launch Alliance. The Atlas V does have excess capability for the mission (slightly overkill) but this allowed it to be launched from Vandenberg AFB. Previous solar orbit missions (like this one) were launched from the Cape to gain the site’s eastward earth rotational velocity. Vandenberg launches have to fly south or westerly direction across the Pacific Ocean. InSight was originally planned to launch in 2016 but was delayed to 2018 due to the main instrument failing.

Liftoff od Insight
The Atlas V lifts off, unfortunately the fog rolled in so very few great shots were taken by the remote cameras. Credit: ULA Flickr.

AV-078 started on a 158 degree azimuth, aiming towards a 63.4 degree Low Earth Parking Orbit. The LOX/RP-1 fueled RD-180 powered first stage fired for 4 minutes and 4 seconds. The Centaur’s RL10C-1 LOX/LH2 engine then fired for 8 minutes and 48 seconds to reach the parking orbit. It then coasted for 65 minutes and 40 seconds then performing a second, 5 minute and 23 second burn to accelerate into a trans-Mars solar orbit. Insight separated 9 minutes after at about T+1 hour, 33 minutes and 19 seconds. The CubeSats separated shortly after.

Aaron Colier Atlas V launch
An awesome long exposure shot of the launch taken by Aaron Collier. From roughly 85 miles away. Credit @aaroncollier96 on Twitter.