The Geeky Geological Features of Charon

As talked about in a previous post, Charon was named after the wife if the discoverer James Christy. Since then the New Horizons probe has visited and taken some amazing pictures of the surface. As part of the mapping they have also started naming some of the craters and other geological features found on the surface, and they all have very fictional culture names. Although some have been accepted but he International Astronomical Union, there are still many that haven’t. As of April 2018 they have set out an agreed naming convention and set of rules for the names. They should conform to one of the following:

  • Destinations or milestones of fictional space and other exploration.
  • Fictional and mythological vessels of space or other exploration.
  • Fictional and mythological voyagers, travelers and explorers.
  • Authors and artists associated with space exploration, especially Pluto and the Kuiper Belt.

So far there have been many provisional names given by the New Horizons team based on mostly science fiction franchises such as Star Wars, Star Trek, Doctor Who and Firefly. Most are still provisional, but some have been accepted

Charon Enhanced
An enhanced colour version of Charon taken by New horizons space probe. It is enhanced to show the differences in surface composition. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute.

A Terra is a large landmass or highland, and there is only one highland region on Charon. It was named Oz Terra after the Wonderful Wizard of Oz children’s novel by L. Frank Baum. The dark spots on the surface are called maculae in planetary science. The first is named Gallifrey Macula after the home planet of Doctor Who (Gallifrey). The second is the Mordor Macula after the base of Sauron in the Lord of the rings books by J.R.R. Tolkien. A planum is a scientific name for a plateau (elevated plain) and Charon only has one. Named Vulcan Planum after the home planet of Spock in the Star Trek Series. Terrae, Maculae and Plana are all being named after fictional destinations. A Mons is a planetary mountain, you may have heard of some of the Mons currently being explored by NASA rovers on Mars. Charon has three major mountains and are named after authors and artists. Butler Mons is named after Octavia E. Butler, an american science fiction author. Clarke Montes is named after Arthur C. Clarke, a famous English science fiction author who wrote 2001: A Space Odyssey. Kubrick Mons is named after Stanley Kubrick, a film director of films such as the shining and clockwork Orange. All three of the Mons names are accepted by the IAU.

Mordor Macula is located at Charon. A large dark area about 475 km in diameter near the north pole of Charon, Pluto’s largest moon. It is named after the shadow lands in J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings.  It is not currently known what Mordor is. It may be frozen gases captured from Pluto’s escaping atmosphere, a large impact basin, or both. Credit: NASA

A chasma is a deep steep sided depression (a chasm), and are being named after fictional vessels. Argo Chasma is named after a ship in the Greek myth of Jason and the Argonauts, it is also the spaceship in the English translation of the Space Battleship Yamato anime series. Caleuche Chasma is named after the mythological ghost ship that travels the seas around Chiloé Island off the coast of Chile, collecting dead who then forever live aboard (much like Davy Jones). Mandjet Chasma is named after the solar boat of the ancient Egyptian God Ra. All three of the above Chasmas are recognised by the IAU. Macross Chasma is named after the SDF-1 spaceship in the Macross anime series. Nostromo Chasma should be known to most as the spaceship in the Alien films. Serenity Chasma is from the spaceship used in the Firefly series. Tardis Chasma is named after the infamous blue box flown by Doctor Who.

Annotated map of Charon, with provisional names for features. Credit: NASA/JPL.

There are 16 notable craters found on Charon’s surface, of which six have officially recognised names. They have all been named after characters associated with science fiction and fantasy. Dorothy Crater is named after the main character is the Wizard of Oz, also naming the only terra on Charon. Nasreddin crater is a sufi traveler from folklore. Nemo is after Captain Nemo from novels by Jules Verne. Pirx crater is the main character from the short stories by Stanislaw Lem. Revati Crater is named after the main character in the Hindu epic narrative Mahabharata. Sadako Crater is the adventurer who traveled to the bottom of the sea in the medieval Russian epic Bylina. All of the above craters have been officially recognised by the IAU. Alice Crater is named after the main character of the Lewis Carroll novels. Kaguyahime Crater is named after the princess of the Moon in Japanese folklore. Organa Crater is named after princess Leia in the Star wars films, along with Vader Crater, and Skywalker crater. Ripley Crater is one of the more studied craters and is named after the main character in the Alien films. Kirk Crater, Spock Crater, Sulu Crater, and Uhura Crater are all named after main characters in the Star Trek TV franchise.

Photo of Charon centered on Ripley Crater. Nostromo Chasma crosses Ripley vertically. Vader is the dark crater at 12:00, Organa Crater is at 9:00, Skywalker Crater at 8:00, Gallifrey Macula and Tardis Chasma at 4:00. Credit: NASA/JPL

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