The First Launch of a Commercial Lunar Lander

Marcus Cote Photo
A Falcon 9 lights up the sky above the Space Coast for the first time in 2019. Here’s a long exposure from 321 Boat Club in Melbourne, Florida. Credit: @marcuscotephoto

At 01:45 UTC on February the 22nd 2019 an already flown Falcon 9 was the first SpaceX rocket flown from the Cape in 2019. Launching from SLC-40 in Cape Canaveral, FL, the 70 metre high rocket flew three satellites into space. On board was an Indonesian communications satellite, a privately funded Israeli moon lander and an experimental space surveillance satellite for the US Air Force. The Falcon 9 first stage booster successfully landed back on Earth for a third time, landing on the autonomous drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You”.

SpaceX launch
A shot of the Falcon 9 launching from SLC-40 at Cape Canaveral with 3 satellites on board. Credit: SpaceX.

The Israeli moon lander is the first of its kind, attempting to be the first privately funded mission to the Moon. It was also the first to separate from the rocket at 33 minutes after liftoff. Within minutes of separation the spacecraft opened its four landing legs and radioed ground control with a status report. At 585 kg at launch it is not especially heavy for a spacecraft, and not the heaviest on board, but without fuel it would only be 150 kg. It is roughly 2m in diameter and 1.5 m tall with the landing legs extended. It is named Beresheet after the Hebrew title of the biblical book of Genesis. After several orbits of the Earth the spacecraft will begin to slowly raise its orbit with the on board thrusters. The process will take roughly 7 weeks to reach the Moon’s area of gravitational influence. At that point the spacecraft will perform manoeuvres to be captured into a lunar orbit, staying there for between two weeks and a month. When in the correct orbit, it will attempt a soft landing on the surface, aiming at the northern end of Mare Serenitatis. The landing zone is a circle of about 15 km.

SpaceIL co-founders Kfir Damari, Yonatan Winetraub and Yariv Bash insert a time capsule on the Beresheet spacecraft. Credit: SpaceIL
spacex launch
Great view of the 9 engined, 70m rocket launching from the Cape in late February. Credit: SpaceX

The aim of the Moon lander, beyond being the first commercial lander, is to measure the Moon’s local magnetic field to help understand how it formed in the early solar system. To do this it has an on board magnetometer, made by the Weizmann Institute of Science. It also has a laser retroreflector array payload provided by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This is a device that will reflect a laser back the direction that it came from. The Apollo astronauts installed a similar device that is still used today to measure the distance the Moon is from Earth at any one time. You do need a very powerful laser to achieve this though. With minimal science instruments the spacecraft is not designed to last long on the surface. It has no thermal control so is expected to quickly overheat when functioning. It therefore has an expected life of just two days after landing on the surface. The craft also has a digital time capsule that contains over 30 million pages of data, including a full copy of the Bible, English-language Wikipedia, many children’s drawings, memories of a Holocaust survivor, Israel’s national anthem, the Israeli flag and a copy of the Israeli Declaration of Independence.

rocket landing
The Falcon 9 rocket’s first stage lands on SpaceX’s drone ship “Of Course I Still Love You.” Credit: SpaceX

Made as a competitor for the Google Lunar X prize, Beresheet is made by SpaceIL. They are a non-profit, and have reportedly produced the mission for less than $100 million, which is extraordinarily cheap for this kind of mission. This is going to be the first private interplanetary mission that’s going to go to the moon,” said Yonatan Winetraub, a co-founder of SpaceIL, which had its origin in a brainstorming meeting in a Tel Aviv bar. “This is a big milestone. This is going to be the first time that it’s not going to be a superpower that’s going to go to the moon. This is a huge step for Israel.

“Until today, three superpowers have soft landed on the moon — the United States, the Soviet Union and recently, China,” . “And (we) thought it’s about time for a change. We want to get little Israel all the way to the moon. This is the purpose of SpaceIL.”


Winetraub, in a news conference
long exposure launch
Long exposure of the launch from across the water. Credit: SpaceX

The Indonesian Nusantara Satu communications satellite was by far the heaviest payload on board at 4,100 kg, deployed 44 minutes into flight. Formerly known as PSN-6, Nusantara Satu is a high throughput satellite that will provide voice and data communications as well as broadband internet throughout the Indonesian archipelago and South East Asia. Built by SSL for PT Pasifik Satelit Nusantara, it was the first private telecommunications company in Indonesia. The cost of the project is estimated at $230 million. The mission uses solar electric ion thrusters to get to the correct orbit, but will employ conventional chemical thrusters to stay in that orbit. It is expected to last at least 15 years.

Nusantara Satu
The Nusantara Satu spacecraft, topped with the Beresheet lunar lander and the U.S. Air Force’s S5 space situational awareness satellite, is pictured before encapsulation inside the Falcon 9 rocket’s payload fairing at Cape Canaveral. Credit: SSL

The other secondary payload on the Falcon 9 was an experimental Air Force satellite intended to test space situational awareness technologies. The flight was brokered by Spaceflight, a Seattle based company that finds rideshare launch services. The S5 satellite was made for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Although the mission has had very little information released about it there has been some. Blue Canyon Technologies announced in September 2017 that it won a contract from AFRL to build two small satellites to operate in GEO. One was identified as S5, a 60 kg satellite using a payload provided by Applied Defence Solutions. The illustrations released show an optics system attached to a satellite bus, and a solar array. “The objective of the S5 mission is to measure the feasibility and affordability of developing low cost constellations for routine and frequent updates to the GEO space catalog,” Blue Canyon Technologies said in its statement. The S5 satellite is attached to the Nusantara Satu satellite and will be until it reaches GEO, where it will separate, turn on, and start its mission. This is not dissimilar to Hispasat 30W-6 that also deployed a smallsat after launch last year.

blue canyon S5 smallsat
Blue Canyon Technologies announced in September 2017 it won an AFRL contract to provide the bus for an experimental smallsat called S5 for space surveillance applications. Credit: Blue Canyon Technologies

Thank you for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, or military history. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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Mars InSight Has Been Busy

insight selfie
This is NASA InSight’s first full selfie on Mars. It displays the lander’s solar panels and deck. On top of the deck are its science instruments, weather sensor booms and UHF antenna. Credit: Nasa/JPL-Caltech.

So I have talked previously about the launch of the latest lander on Mars, named Mars Insight. Launched on the 5th of May 2018 by an Atlas V 401 from Vandenberg AFB, it began its 6 month journey to the red planet. Travelling across 484 million km it landed on 26th of November 2018. It landed much like the Curiosity and Phoenix missions with a parachute decent and then using rockets to lower the lander onto the surface gently. The mass of the lander is about 358 kg, but due to the gravity on Mars being two thirds less it only weighs 134.6 kg on the surface. Just a few hours after touchdown the Mars Odyssey orbiter relayed signals indicating that the solar panels had successfully opened, generating power. The relayed signal also contained a pair of images of the landing site. For the next few weeks InSight checked the health of the on board systems and monitor the weather and temperature of the landing site.

InSights workspace
This mosaic, made of 52 individual images from NASA’s InSight lander, shows the workspace where the spacecraft will eventually set its science instruments. The lavender annotation shows where InSight’s seismometer and heat flow probe can be placed. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The images relayed were used to find the best area to place the Seismometer instrument. There was then some time for scientists to evaluate the information and pick the best spot to place the sensitive instrument. On the 19th of December Insight used its 8ft robotic arm to pick up the Seismometer from the deck of the lander, and place it on the ground nearby. The position picked was one fairly free of rocks, making the leveling process easier. There was then another set of a few weeks to adjust the cable and ensure the SEIS instrument was perfectly placed. Then the arm picked up a protective cover from the lander to place over the instrument. This is designed to minimise noise from the surrounding atmosphere, being introduced from huge temperature changes and wind vibrations. This will allow the seismometer to pick up the tiny tremors that the planet may have. This is the first time another planet has been studied this way, the only other planetary body being the Moon. Viking 1 and 2 had seismometers on board but design flaws meant the results were inconclusive.

Temperature is one of the biggest issues with a mission like this. On Mars the temperature can range over 90 degrees Celsius in just a single sol (Martian day). The protective cover is ringed with a thermal barrier and a section of chain mail around the bottom. The wind and thermal shield has been specifically designed for the environment to moderate the temperatures. JPL has a history dealing with Mars temperatures from the many missions it has sent there including the Phoenix lander, and the Curiosity rover. The SEIS instrument was provided by the French Space Agency CNES, and developed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, with JPL building the wind and thermal shield. There is also a great British part of the instrument with some of the silicon sensors designed and fabricated by Imperial College London. The microseismometers were designed to pick up the faintest seismic activity from the surface. Scientists from Oxford’s Department of Physics also supported the development, and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory’s RAL Space worked closely with the team to develop the front electronics of the instrument as well as the space qualification.

SEIS instrument cutaway
Cutaway illustration showing interior components of SEIS. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/CNES/IPGP
microseismometer
One of the microseismometer sensors, carved from a single piece of silicon 25mm square. Credit: Imperial College/T.Pike.

On the 12th of February the lander deployed the HP3 package onto the surface. Known as the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, it was placed about a meter away from the seismometer. The Idea of HP3 is to measure the heat flow through Mars’s subsurface, hopefully helping scientists to figure out how much energy it takes to build a rocky planet like Mars. An interesting instrument, it has a self-hammering spike, or mole, allowing it to burrow up to 5m below the surface. This is much deeper than any previous mission. Viking 1 only scooped down 8.6 inches, and the predecessor of Insight, Phoenix dug to 7 inches. The probe was provided by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). A tether attached to the top of the mole features heat sensors to measure the temperature of the Martian subsurface. Heat sensors in the mole itself will measure the soils thermal conductivity (how easily the heat moves through the surface). The mole plans to stop every 50 centimetres to take the measurements, as the hammering creates friction, releasing heat that would likely impact the instruments readings. It is then heated up by 28 degrees Celsius over 24 hours, with the temperature sensors measuring how rapidly this happens.

A GIF of the Insight lander placing the instruments on the ground. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Along with the Insight lander, the launch also contained a new first, a pair of cubesats known as MarCO-1 and MarCO-2. The size of small suitcases the pair were the first cubesats to enter and work in deep space. The team nicknamed the WALL-E and EVE, and they functioned as communications relays during the insight landing, beaming back data from the decent, along with the first image. WALL-E also managed to capture its own great images of Mars as it soared past it. The mission cost was about $18.5 million, much less than most missions, and was designed by JPL as a technology demonstrator mission. Neither is still in contact with Earth, with WALL-E losing contact on the 29th of December 18, and EVA losing contact on the 4th of January 19. JPL says they will attempt to contact the pair again in the future, but it is unlikely. The MarCO satellites will still live on though, with some of the spare parts going towards other cubesat missions, including experimental radios, antennas and propulsion systems. They also pushed the idea of using commercial parts to develop the system.

MarCO
Engineer Joel Steinkraus uses sunlight to test the solar arrays on one of the Mars Cube One (MarCO) spacecraft at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
MarCO GIF
MarCO-B, one of the experimental Mars Cube One (MarCO) CubeSats, took these images as it approached Mars. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Just as an addition, there is a great comic that can be found here about Mars Insight, by the oatmeal. It is worth a quick read.

Thank you for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, or military history. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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Snowy Day at Harwell

So Oxfordshire got a big helping of snow in the last few years, and although Harwell campus wasn’t shut immediately it allowed for a great walk into work from the bus stop. It was a great opportunity for a few photos, and I decided to make this post to highlight some of my favourites.

snowy trees next to the cricket pitch
Snowy trees next to the cricket pitch.
snowy trees next to the road from Thomson entrance
A view towards the cricket pavillion from the edge of the pitch.
view from cricket pitch
A view across the road from the cricket pitches.
Thomson entrance
The Thomson entrance with a snowy cover.
Snowy fence
A view through the fence with a heavy helping of snow.
Campus HQ
Campus HQ from the Thomson entrance.
Snowy campus HQ
Campus HQ from the entrance, flag flying.
Quad One
A view towards the Quad One section of campus, and the new gym.
Campus pond
The pond frozen over, still wouldn’t skate on it though.
Oxford Space Systems
The Oxford Space Systems building and connected businesses with a snowy front lawn.
On top of the mound
Some undisturbed trees on top of the STFC mound.
Fermi Avenue
Fermi Avenue as the snow started up again.
Satellite Applications Catapult
Satellite Applications Catapult from the bus stop.
Bus stop
Bus stops with a few weary travellers hoping the busses are still running

Thank you for taking a look at my photos of a snow covered Harwell campus. Take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space, electronics, or general history, especially about the Harwell campus. If you are interested, follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on. Most of all, thank you for taking the time to read my posts.

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