Where Did the Ending of First Man Come From

For those out there who love space and the history behind it, of which I count myself, Damien Chazelle and Ryan Gosling have created First Man. The film follows the life of Neil Armstrong on the run up to the Apollo 11 landings where he became the first man to step foot on the Moon. All in all a great film, with lots of historical facts for those who know where to look. Beyond the few big plot points that Chazelle took minor liberties with, it gives a good account of run up to a huge moment for human engineering. The thing this post is focused on though, was the ending accurate, did Neil Armstrong actually throw his daughters bracelet into the crater.

A promotional still from the First Man film of Ryan Gosling as Neil Armstrong.

On the 20th of July 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin spent 2 hours and 31 minutes exploring the lunar landscape, conducting experiments and collecting samples. All of it was scripted by NASA, practiced down to the last minute. There was a moment though where Neil took a short deviation from the plan, and that did actually happen. He wandered over to an area known as Little West Crater and took a moment there. It is not publicly known what happened at the edge of the crater, whether he was just reflecting, or like in the movie he may have thrown something into it. Either way it is unclear what actually happened, but some effort has been made to find out, mainly by the author of the First Man official biography in 2012, James K. Hansen.

The front cover of the book First Man. The official biography of Neil Armstrong, written by James R. Hansen.

Hansen spent four years researching the book about Armstrong, speaking to Neil himself and most of his family including his ex-wife Janet, Sister June and his children Eric and Mark. Throughout the interviews he develops a hunch that Neil may have left something on the Moon. This isn’t a crazy idea either because the astronauts did leave sentimental items on the Moon. On that very mission Buzz Aldrin left an Apollo 1 mission patch to commemorate the lost astronauts in the fire. The 10th person on the Moon, Charlie Duke left a photo of his family on the surface in 1972.

One of the photographs taken of the picture of Charlie Dukes family left on the lunar surface. Part of the Apollo archived photos. Credit: NASA

The big question is if he ever took the bracelet in the first place. If he did he wouldn’t have just snuck it on, it would be in the manifest known as the personal property kit (PPK) and Neil had a copy of this. When probed by Hansen he claimed to have lost the document, but on his death in August 2012 all of his archives were donated to his Alma mater Purdue University, and the document was part of it. The archives are under seal until 2020. When Hansen asked his sister June whether she thought he left something on the Moon for Karen she said “Oh I hope so”. Some may see the ending as a dreamt up Hollywood-ised version of the Moon landing. The decision not to add in the planting of the flag upset many Americans, and labeled the film as un-american. For me though, the scene when he steps foot upon the Moon is more important. That is the moment people remember, the bit that really counted. Plus the flag was included in the film, just not the planting of it.

A promotional still from the First Man movie, with Ryan Gosling as Neil Armstrong on the lunar surface with the sun visor down.

On a final note, I really liked some of the additions the film made. I loved the bit at the start where Chuck Yeager, who famously disliked Armstrong, grounded him. There were lots of tidbits and facts that were added in just to show that they had done their research. There were some inconsistencies, his daughter actually died well before that exact X-15 flight that got him grounded. There was also a famous point where Armstrong had to eject from the flying bedstead which got him in trouble. He is seen to be talking and arguing after, but in real life he had bit his tongue and could speak for days. Also, after the Apollo 1 fire the administrator, James Webb resigned, whereas they don’t seem to change the character in the films to make it simpler. These are not really massive plot problems though, they make little difference to the story, and don’t change our view of him. The minor changes made the film flow better, and those who care know the issues. Overall, it is a film people need to see.

Ryan Gosling as Neil Armstrong in First Man, just after he crashes the flying bedstead, in real life he bit his tongue so badly that he couldn’t speak for days after.

Thank You for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space or electronics, or follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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The Geeky Geological Features of Charon

As talked about in a previous post, Charon was named after the wife if the discoverer James Christy. Since then the New Horizons probe has visited and taken some amazing pictures of the surface. As part of the mapping they have also started naming some of the craters and other geological features found on the surface, and they all have very fictional culture names. Although some have been accepted but he International Astronomical Union, there are still many that haven’t. As of April 2018 they have set out an agreed naming convention and set of rules for the names. They should conform to one of the following:

  • Destinations or milestones of fictional space and other exploration.
  • Fictional and mythological vessels of space or other exploration.
  • Fictional and mythological voyagers, travelers and explorers.
  • Authors and artists associated with space exploration, especially Pluto and the Kuiper Belt.

So far there have been many provisional names given by the New Horizons team based on mostly science fiction franchises such as Star Wars, Star Trek, Doctor Who and Firefly. Most are still provisional, but some have been accepted

Charon Enhanced
An enhanced colour version of Charon taken by New horizons space probe. It is enhanced to show the differences in surface composition. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute.

A Terra is a large landmass or highland, and there is only one highland region on Charon. It was named Oz Terra after the Wonderful Wizard of Oz children’s novel by L. Frank Baum. The dark spots on the surface are called maculae in planetary science. The first is named Gallifrey Macula after the home planet of Doctor Who (Gallifrey). The second is the Mordor Macula after the base of Sauron in the Lord of the rings books by J.R.R. Tolkien. A planum is a scientific name for a plateau (elevated plain) and Charon only has one. Named Vulcan Planum after the home planet of Spock in the Star Trek Series. Terrae, Maculae and Plana are all being named after fictional destinations. A Mons is a planetary mountain, you may have heard of some of the Mons currently being explored by NASA rovers on Mars. Charon has three major mountains and are named after authors and artists. Butler Mons is named after Octavia E. Butler, an american science fiction author. Clarke Montes is named after Arthur C. Clarke, a famous English science fiction author who wrote 2001: A Space Odyssey. Kubrick Mons is named after Stanley Kubrick, a film director of films such as the shining and clockwork Orange. All three of the Mons names are accepted by the IAU.

Mordor Macula is located at Charon. A large dark area about 475 km in diameter near the north pole of Charon, Pluto’s largest moon. It is named after the shadow lands in J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings.  It is not currently known what Mordor is. It may be frozen gases captured from Pluto’s escaping atmosphere, a large impact basin, or both. Credit: NASA

A chasma is a deep steep sided depression (a chasm), and are being named after fictional vessels. Argo Chasma is named after a ship in the Greek myth of Jason and the Argonauts, it is also the spaceship in the English translation of the Space Battleship Yamato anime series. Caleuche Chasma is named after the mythological ghost ship that travels the seas around Chiloé Island off the coast of Chile, collecting dead who then forever live aboard (much like Davy Jones). Mandjet Chasma is named after the solar boat of the ancient Egyptian God Ra. All three of the above Chasmas are recognised by the IAU. Macross Chasma is named after the SDF-1 spaceship in the Macross anime series. Nostromo Chasma should be known to most as the spaceship in the Alien films. Serenity Chasma is from the spaceship used in the Firefly series. Tardis Chasma is named after the infamous blue box flown by Doctor Who.

Annotated map of Charon, with provisional names for features. Credit: NASA/JPL.

There are 16 notable craters found on Charon’s surface, of which six have officially recognised names. They have all been named after characters associated with science fiction and fantasy. Dorothy Crater is named after the main character is the Wizard of Oz, also naming the only terra on Charon. Nasreddin crater is a sufi traveler from folklore. Nemo is after Captain Nemo from novels by Jules Verne. Pirx crater is the main character from the short stories by Stanislaw Lem. Revati Crater is named after the main character in the Hindu epic narrative Mahabharata. Sadako Crater is the adventurer who traveled to the bottom of the sea in the medieval Russian epic Bylina. All of the above craters have been officially recognised by the IAU. Alice Crater is named after the main character of the Lewis Carroll novels. Kaguyahime Crater is named after the princess of the Moon in Japanese folklore. Organa Crater is named after princess Leia in the Star wars films, along with Vader Crater, and Skywalker crater. Ripley Crater is one of the more studied craters and is named after the main character in the Alien films. Kirk Crater, Spock Crater, Sulu Crater, and Uhura Crater are all named after main characters in the Star Trek TV franchise.

Photo of Charon centered on Ripley Crater. Nostromo Chasma crosses Ripley vertically. Vader is the dark crater at 12:00, Organa Crater is at 9:00, Skywalker Crater at 8:00, Gallifrey Macula and Tardis Chasma at 4:00. Credit: NASA/JPL

Thank You for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space or electronics, or follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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Notes From NASA’s Chief Scientist Jim Green’s Talk on The Search For Extraterrestrial Life

A few weeks ago my place of work, STFC, was lucky enough to host NASA’s chief scientist Jim Green for a talk titled “The search for life on Earth in space and time”. At the time of writing there is a version of the talk on University of Oxfords Facebook page. A really interesting talk for anyone interested in space, and our solar system. It also goes much more in depth that this post today and gives a real insight into current science of our solar system. A planetary scientist himself he talks about the planets in our solar system that could harbor life and those that might have done previously. I found it a real insight into what NASA’s goals are and where they are looking for signs of life. I personally enjoyed the talk as Jim Green hosts the “Gravity Assist” podcast made by NASA.

logo for NASA’s Gravity Assist podcast hosted by Jim Green. Credit: NASA.

The first real point he made was how to define what life is, which is a reasonable question. If you want to go out and find life on other planets, how do you know when you have found it? Spacecraft and astronauts need instruments and tools to detect things, and to build those instruments you need to know what they are looking for. The definition they came up with was that life needs three things, to metabolize, reproduce and evolve. This is a pain because it’s difficult to see any of those things directly. If you take just the metabolizing part and break it down it makes it a bit simpler, you need organics, the energy source, and water. You also need some way to get rid of waste. Plus we need to take into account time, you could have a fully habitable environment but not have life if it isn’t the right time.

The ingredients needed for life, a slide in the Jim Green Talk. Credit: NASA

Time is a really important factor, Earth has existed for 4.6 billion years, and it hasn’t always had life. They have been at least 5 mass extinction events in that time as well. To really see what is happening we need to look at how the sun has changed over that time, it is the thing in the solar system with the most effect on us. Since its birth 4.6 billion years ago it has brightened, with the luminosity increasing up to 25 or 30% by some estimates. We know that the Goldilocks region or habitable zone of a star exists where water can exist in all three states, but that depends on how big the star is and how bright it is, and therefore over time this Goldilocks region changes. This would make life simpler when looking for exoplanets, just work out where the habitable zone is and choose planets in it, unfortunately it isn’t that simple. 

A diagram of how the habitable zone of a star changes over time with different brightnesses. Credit: NASA

Let’s start off with Mercury, the closest planet to the sun. It is larger than the moon, but it isn’t large by any means. It has a magnetic field, it is nearly tidally locked and it is incredibly hot. It out gasses, and from Messenger data most scientists have agreed that it has never had a substantial atmosphere, so water is very unlikely to have existed there. The next candidate would be Venus, it is a similar size to the Earth after all. The Soviet Union Venera missions looked at the atmosphere and the temperature, and found it is extremely hot. The surface is hot enough to melt lead, and the pressure is 90 times that of our own planet. The NASA Magellan probe found it to be highly volcanic, with a very thick atmosphere. This means there is basically no chance of water, and makes Venus a bad choice for finding life today. Using some fairly interesting concepts, scientists have modeled what early Venus may have looked like and found it likely had water at some point, but the runaway greenhouse effect along with the lack of magnetic field has stripped all water away. That being said one day we could produce probes good enough to dig through the surface and look for signs of life below the ever evolving surface layer.

Five global views of Venus by the Magellan probe. Credit: NASA.

The next obvious choice is Mars, much larger than the Moon, but only about half the size of Earth. It’s a bit of a runt due to Jupiter. The asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter is made of rocks that could have been a part of Mars, but Jupiter’s massive gravitational pull denied that. We also know that at some point in its life it had oceans that covered two thirds of the surface that could have been up to a mile deep in places. It then went through massive climate change, and it lost its magnetic field. That means the solar winds have stripped away the atmosphere and left a dry and arid surface. The pressure is about 1% that of Earth. Plus as it is fairly close to Earth it means that we can visit it fairly easily. From a number of missions including satellites and a number of rovers, we know that there are organic compounds on the surface, and likely water under the surface. Although not a guarantee of life it is a big hint. There a number of missions planned including ESA’s ExoMars, and NASA’s InSight and the 2020 rover. These missions are designed to drill into the surface and understand more about the planet, and what the water held.

True color image of Mars taken by the OSIRIS instrument on the ESA Rosetta spacecraft during its February 2007 flyby of the planet. Credit: ESA.

We talked about the habitable zone, but there is another line (or sphere technically) that planetary scientists use called the snow line. Lying somewhere in the Kuiper belt, it defines that liquid water cannot exist beyond it. For a long time that was thought to be true, but research has revealed that some moons have liquid water below their icy surface. In 1611 Galileo discovered some of Jupiter’s moons, and they have been visited and studied by the Juno and Galileo probe. All the moons at one point had an ice crust. Scientists have found that some moons such as IO, lost this crust and have become very volcanic and volatile. Ganymede, Callisto and Europa still have this ice crust. Only Ganymede and Europa have any signs of a watery ocean underneath the crust, but Ganymede is somewhat ruled out from having life because of its very cold temperatures. This leaves Europa in this Jupiter habitable zone. Slightly smaller than out moon, it has been shown to have watery geysers that reach 400 km above the planet. That would be equivalent to Earth geysers hitting the space station. From tests by Galileo data it has been shown to have twice as much water than on Earth. Plus it has been like that for 4.6 billion years, so that is a good indication that there could be microbial or even complex life below the surface. There is a mission planned to go to visit Europa called Europa Clipper.

An image showing the icy crust of Jupiter’s moon Europa. Europa is about 3,160 kilometers (1,950 miles) in diameter, or about the size of Earth’s moon. This image was taken on September 7, 1996, by the camera on board the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter. Credit: NASA/JPL/DLR.

Then there is Saturn, which has had many studies, and the thing that stands out is the moon Enceladus. It is the moon that really drew NASA’s attention to the possibility of water on these distant moons. It also has geysers, coming from huge cracks in the southern hemisphere. They are huge walls or water just pouring out of the body. With it being only a small moon of around 300 km, it suffers from tidal forces. The water pours out less when it is closer to to Saturn, and more when it is further away (due to an elliptical orbit). This has been measured and shown, as the Galileo spacecraft actually flew through one of the geysers and didn’t know it. We have spacecraft that have literally tasted this water. About 98% of the water that comes out of the geysers falls back onto the moon, but that 2% escapes and forms an e-ring. The Cassini spacecraft also flew through these plumes and managed to measure some of this water, and more importantly small bits of rock. It gives indications of hydro thermal vents being the cause of these plumes of water.

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured this view as it neared icy Enceladus for its closest-ever dive past the moon’s active south polar region. Credit: NASA/JPL

Another spectacular moon of Saturn in the running is the famous Titan. It is bigger than the planet Mercury, the atmosphere is about twice that of ours, and is dominated by nitrogen. Trace gasses of methane and ethane have been detected, and it has large bodies of liquid. Radar images of the surface piercing through the thick atmosphere show rocky terrain and flat lakes of liquid methane. This has spurred on the idea that life could be very different, and could survive in such liquids as methane. So if we want a chance of finding life not like us then Titan would be the best place to go. There are a number of important missions that are planned to visit Titan and make much better measurements of the surface. Including robotic missions and maybe even very simple rovers. By all accounts it is still in early stages.

These six infrared images of Saturn’s moon Titan represent some of the clearest, most seamless-looking global views of the icy moon’s surface produced so far. The views were created using 13 years of data acquired by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument on board NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Nantes/University of Arizona

This data taken from these missions have allowed us to look further afield to find exoplanets that could fit what we now use to define habitable planets. Missions such as Kepler have refined the way to detect planets by looking at stars for long periods of time. looking at how stars dim and wobble when planets go in front if them. The big exoplanet mission for NASA currently is TESS. Launched in April it has gone through its commissioning and is already finding planets out there. The idea for it is to take large amounts of images over a long time and try to find as many exoplanets as possible. Hopefully producing thousands of potential planets, the best looking ones can then use much more powerful and advanced telescopes such as JWST to make better measurements and tease out the atmosphere and makeup of these exoplanets. One closing point that Jim Green made, when you go out and look at the stars at night, just remember that there are more planets on our galaxy than there are stars visible in the sky. 

One of the first images taken by NASA TESS, centered on the southern constellation Centaurus, reveals more than 200,000 stars. Credit: NASA.

Thank You for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space or electronics, or follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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NASA Turns 60

The official logo for NASA turning 60.

As of today, the 1st of October 2018, NASA has turned 60. It was created as a new agency based on its precursor NACA, started in 1915. The cold war between the USA and the Soviet Union created a space race the late 1950’s. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was experimenting with rocket planes. One of the famous ones was the Bell X-1 that took Chuck Yeager past the speed of sound (and was the first to do so). They were also the team behind the running of the X-15 rocket plane that Neil Armstrong famously flew. In the early 1950’s there was a call to look into launching artificial satellites towards the end of the decade, mainly driven by the International Geophysical Year which was 1957/58.

The x-15 rocket plane, currently the fastest plane ever, it reached mach 7, and was developed by NACA. Credit: NASA.

An effort towards this by the USA started with Project Vanguard, led by the 
United States Naval Research Laboratory, which ended in catastrophic failure. This was the perceived state of the US side of the space race at the time. On October 4th, 1957 Sputnik 1 launched and instantly grabbed the attention of the United States public. The perceived threat to national security was known as the Sputnik crisis, and US congress urged immediate action. President Dwight D. Eisenhower with his advisers worked on immediate measures to catch up. It eventually led to an agreement to create a new federal agency based on the activity of NACA. The agency would conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was also created to develop space technology for the military applications.

The failed Project Vanguard by the Naval Research Laboratory, it was meant to be the first US satellite in space but ended in disaster.

Between 1957 and 1958 NACA began studying what a new non-military space agency would be, and what it would do. On January 12th, 1958 NACA convened a “special committee on space technology” headed by Guyford Stever (director of the national science foundation). The committee had consultation from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency headed by the famous Werner Von Braun, the soon to be architect of the Saturn V. On January 14th 1958, the NACA director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology” that stated:

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space… It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency… NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology

On January 31st 1958, Explorer 1 was launched. Officially names Satellite 1958 Alpha, it was the first satellite of the United States. Talked about in a recent post, the payload consisted of the Iowa Cosmic Ray Instrument without a tape recorder (there was not enough time to install it). A big turning point in the US side of the space race, it gave civilian space activities a chance in the spotlight to allow for more funding.

The logo for Explorer 1, the first US satellite in space. It was the first satellite to pick up the Van Allen belts. Credit: NASA/JPL.

In April 1958, Eisenhower delivered to the U.S. Congress an address to support the formation of a civilian space agency. He then submitted a bill to create the “National Aeronautical and Space Agency”. Somewhat reworked the bill was passed as the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 on July 16th. Two days later Von Braun’s Working group submitted a report criticizing the duplication of efforts between departments on space related programs in the US government. On July 29th the bill was signed by Eisenhower and NASA was formed. It began operations on October 1st 1958. NASA absorbed NACA in its entirety, including its 8,000 employees, annual budget of $100 million, and the research labs under its jurisdiction. The three main labs were Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. It also inherited two small test facilities. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency were transferred to NASA, including Werner Von Brauns Working Group. Elements of the Naval Research Laboratory that failed to launch project Vanguard were also transferred to NASA. In December of that year NASA gained control Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). It is important to remember that NASA was based upon the success of the rocket scientist Rober Goddard, who inspired Werner Von Braun and other German Rocket scientists brought over by project paperclip. There was also huge influences from the research conducted by ARPA and US Air Force research programs.

Thank You for reading, take a look at my other posts if you are interested in space or electronics, or follow me on Twitter to get updates on projects I am currently working on.

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